Australia – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (6)

 

Otázka: Australia

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Martina

 

The sixth largest country in the world and smallest continent in the world
Situated in the southeast Asia between Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean
Australia is an island continent
Was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770
Land is full of desert, grassland but also rainforests.

 

The capital city is Canberra, founded in 1913. It is the seat of the Government and the Federal Parliament
There is the Captain Cook Memorial Waterjet – 134 metres high, Australian National University, Royal Australian mint, Australian War Memorial, Australian National Gallery

Two thirds of Australia area are made up of desert – The Great Victorian Desert, The Great Sand Desert, The Gipson Desert, The Simpson Desert

The highest parts of Australia are the Australian Alps. The highest peak is Mt. Kosciusco with 2230 metres. Parts – Great Dividing Range, New England Range, Blue Mountains, Australian Alps. There are16 national parks and reserves.

 

Darling river and Murray river – they are a water supply for the 3 million people and the 40 percent of Australia’s farms
n the south-east area, there are situated 3 the biggest lakes by aree – Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens, Lake Gairdner
Tasmania
, King Island, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island , Mellville Island, Groote Island

 

Most of the land has continental climate.
But Australians know every type of climate. Northern and centrals parts are tropical.
The tropical forests in the north and north-east are displaced by savannah or grassland.
Period of drought (10 months) exchanges period of rain(2months)

 

18 00 000 inhabitants (228 000 Aborigines), The density is 2 people /Km².
Half of the population live to 200 m from the coast. Around 85% people live in urban areas.
Deserts and the tropical northern part are predictably uninhabited.
95% of inhabitants are of British origin
3% are made by other European ethnic groups
1.5% are aborigines (original inhabitants like Indians in the America)

 

Aborigines – They are original inhabitants They live there over 40 000 years. Many of them died in the wars against the English to protect their land. Today only 1000000 survive. Some of them still live their traditional life in the desert areas of the Australia, but other became alcoholics. The government has recently given some land back to them( ULURU a huge rock in the middle of Australia). They invented the boomerang.

English and French. Australia has no official language
Main language – Australian English has a strong accent and vocabulary, Chinese, Italian, Vietnamese and Greek

 

Auslan

Australia was discovered by British sailor Captain James Cook in 1770 – he opened the continent for the English
at first it was a penalty colony, because in Britain there weren´t enough prisons
soldiers guards and some of their families came with prisoners
gold rushes (between 1850 – 1860) – the second wave of the settlers – population rapidly has increased
on January 1, 1901 the six colonies became states of a new nation – the Commonwealth of Australia

democratic, federal system, the head of state is British Queen represented by the British Governor
The head of government is the Prime Minister.
The Federal Parliament lies in Canberra ( The Senate, The House of Representatives).
The federal government is separated into three branches: The Legislature, The executive, The judiciary

The capital city is Canberra.
The official name of Australia is the Commonwealth of Australia deputy to the British Queen.
In each state there is the federal parliament for local affairs.
Australia is divided into six states – New Souft Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania and three territories – Northern Territory, Coral Sea Island Territory and Ausralian Capital Territory.

Nobody rides to school on a Kangaroo, has a Kangaroo, in fact they never even get to see in the city.
Kangaroo meat (high in protein, zinc and iron) – exports to more than 55 countries. Kangaroo skins and furs are exported to a large number of markets in Europe, the USA and Asia

Golden Wattle – symbol of the land, every sports person representing Australia wears the colours of green and gold gleaned from national floral emblem the Golden Wattle
1st day of September, the first day of Spring each year nationally, Australians would celebrate Wattle day

 

Andrew S. W. Thomas (Ph.D. ) NASA Astronaut
1983 = head of the Advanced Flight Sciences Department
He was also manager of the research laboratory, the wind tunnels, and the test facilities used in these studies
NASA EXPERIENCE – joined Johnson Space Center in August 1992.

British captain, James Cook (1728-1779) He traveled from his homeland of Great Britain to lands where few had gone before; bringing home much for his country. Cook was a discoverer, a mapmaker (cartographer), and an innovator in the process of long distance sea travel and navigation.

Great barrier reef – One of Australia’s most important natural gifts which is situated in the east coast. It is the world’s large coral reef systém. It can be seen from space. One of the seven wonders of the natural world. It is larger than the Great Wall of China and the only living thing on earth visible from space.

 

Ayers Rock is a large sandstone monolit in the central Australia and is also known by its Aboriginal name ‘Uluru‚ It is about 600 metres high and it is called Ayers Rock. Uluru is one of Australia’s most recognisable natural landmarks. Uluru lies in the national park Uluru Kata Tjuta (UNESCO). For aborigines it is a mystic, mythology place

 

Sydney is the oldest city, founded by Arthur Philip in 1788 as a convict colony. It is the largest city in Australia(2.9 mil inhabitants). The most important sights in Sydney are the Opera House (fascinating roof construction) and the Harbour Bridge, Taronga Zoo)

In Australia lives many kind of rare and special animals and plants (the kangaroo, the platypus, the termites, the wild horses, the koala bears). The best known trees are eucalyptus trees in Australia. There are about 120 national parks and reservations there.






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