What do you know about Canada?
It is the second largest state /country in the world after Russia and it is the largest country on the American continent. However its population is small. The density[density] = hustota / of population is very low = nízká / because a large part of this country lies in the north and in the Canadian North the climate is very cold. The climate is arctic in the North. And that’s why = a proto / not many people live there in the Canadian North. The only = jediní / people who live there are a few Eskimos [eskimouz].
The Eskimos inhabit = obývají / the northern territories of Canada. This part of Canada is ideal for whales, wolves, polar bears etc.
- seals[si:ls] = tuleni, whales[weilz] = velryby, polar bears[poul be z] = lední medvědi, wolves
- In the Canadian North the climate is extremely cold = the arctic climate. Summers are very short there and winters are long and cold. In winter the temperature in the North can even fall to -40°C = 40 degrees centigrade[sentigreid] below zero. Because of =kvůli /the climate not many people live there in the Canadian North. In the south = continental climate
- [konti´nentl] = vnitrozemské podnebí / when average[évridž] = průměrné / temperatures in winter are-20°C.
The national emblem[embl m] = znak, symbol / of Canada is: the maple leaf [´meiplli:f] = javorový list
The national flag: The flag is red and in the centre there is a white square with a red maple leaf which is placed in this white square.
- low number of population. It is about more than 30 million people. It means that Canada has only three times more people than the Czech Republic. Almost 80 per cent [p´sent] of Canadian population inCanadalive in cities which are located / concentrated near the southern border with theUSA. TheUSAhas been number one trading partner of Canada.
- Its area is about 10 million square kilometres. Canada is situated on the whole northern part of North America. The exception = vyjímka / is Alaska [ ´lésk ] which is a part of the USA. Canada occupies [okjupaiz] = zabírá / about two fifths = asi dvě pětiny / of the North American continent. Canada is extending = táhne se, rozprostírá se / from the Atlantic Ocean to thePacific Ocean.
- In the north Canada is washed by the Arctic Ocean [a:ktik] = Severní ledový oceán, in the east by the Atlantic[ t´léntik] Ocean, in the west by the Pacific Ocean and in the west Canada borders on = hraničí s / the American state – Alaska[ ´lésk ].In the south Canada borders on = hraničí s / the United States. It means that Canada borders on only one country = hraničí pouze s jednou zemí / – the USA. In the south of Canada we can also find the Great Lakes – for example the Lake Superior, the Lake Huron, the Lake Ontario[on´te riou], the Lake Erie[i ri]. The largest are:the Lake Erie and Ontario. Other well-known lakes are: the Great Bear Lake, the Great Slave[sleiv] = otrok / Lake, the Lake Winnipeg[winipeg].
- Among these lakes there are also famous Niagara [nai´ég r ] Falls.
- ice hockey = is one of the most popular winter sports, ice-skating, downhill and cross-country skiing = sjezdové lyžování a běžky / golf, hiking, fishing, water sports
- Ottawa[ot w ]. Ottawa has its population only about 1 million. It lies in the province Ontario on the Ottawa River, which marks the border = která vyznačuje hranici / between the provinces [provinsiz] Quebec[kwi´bek] and Ontario. Quebec is the largest / the biggest province[provins] in the country with its capital Quebec City. Many visitors say that Quebec City and Montreal are the most ”European-feeling” cities in Canada. Quebec is the only = jediná / province where French is the official language. The population here is mainly = hlavně / French speaking.
Toronto[t ´rontou], the country’s largest city and Ottawa, the capital city, are both situated in Ontario.
- Here is a lot of natural lakes and forests.
- In the south of Ontario near Toronto on the border with New York State in the USA we can visit one of the wonders[wand z] = divů, zázraků /of the world = Niagara falls. N.F. are one of the great tourist attractions. The height[hait] = výška / of them is about50 m.
- the longest river is the Mackenzie River[m ´kenzi] which flows from the Rocky Mountains to the Arctic Ocean. Other big rivers are:the Yukon[ju:kon]. It is connected with gold[gould] = zlato./The writer Jack London wrote about it, about “gold fever”[fi:v ] = zlatá horečka./ the Columbia[k ´lambi ].Its part flows through the USA territory [terit ri].
- the River of St. Lawrence[s ntlor ns] = řeka Svatého Vavřince / which flows into theAtlantic Ocean. It is Canadian most important river.
- Toronto,Calgary, Montreal, Vancouver,Victoria, Winnipeg. In Calgary[kélg ri] there were the Winter Olympic Games in 1988, in Vancouver there were the Winter Olympic Games in 2010. The three largest cities:1.Toronto[t ´rontou] = 5 and half million people. It is said that Toronto is the most multicultural[malti´kalč r l] = mnoha kultur / city in the world.
- Montreal[montri ´o:l]= 4 million people. The port of Montreal is on the St. Lawrence River.
- Vancouver[vén´ku:v ] = 2 and half million people
Currency[kar nsi]: Canadian dollar
- In the past Canada was a French colony and it was called New France. In the 18th century Canada was ceded [si:did] = byla postoupena, byla přiznána / to England and it was a dominion[d ´minj n] = území, dominium / of the British Empire[´empai ®] = Britské impérium. Canada became an independent state in the 19th century with the status [´steit s] = postavení / of a dominion = území / in The British Commonwealth[kom nwel0] of Nations = Britské společenství národů. Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth. The head of the Commonwealth is the British Queen Elizabeth II. The head of the state and government in Canada is the Prime Minister. Like in Britain there are 2 chambers [čeimb z] = komory / = the House of Commons = Poslanecká sněmovna /and the Senate. It means that Parliament of Canada consists of the House of Commons and the Senate.
- People in Canada are mainly = hlavně / of British and of French origin. Canada is an English-speaking country but there is a large French-speaking minority.[mai´noriti]= menšina
- Most of the population in Canada come from European immigrants[imigr nts]= přistěhovalci for example:British and Irish origin = původ, French origin and also German ancestors.[énsest z] = předci, předchůdci / Polish, Italian, Dutch = Holanďané / origin. The rest is made by Eskimos[eskimouz] and Indians.Eskimos and Indians were the original people /inhabitants = původní obyvatelé /of Canada. The main occupation of Eskimos and Indians was fishing.= rybolov
2 main official languages
- in Canada are English and French. Most of the French Canadians live in the province[provins] = provincie /Quebec[kwi´bek]. Both English and French are the official languages inCanada. Most Canadians live in larger cities and towns along the southern border with theUSA.
Canadais a constitutional monarchy which is divided into: = je rozdělena na: 10 provinces [provinsiz] and 2 territories[terit riz] = teritória. The 2 territories are:
- The Yukon Territory
- Northwest Territory
The land is various. In the east Canada has hills and mountains, the central part is covered by = je pokrytá / plains[pleinz] = pláně, roviny / which extend = které se táhnou / from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. These great plains are ideal for wheat[wi:t] =pšenice/farming. = pěstování pšenice The central plains form the prairies.[´pre riz] = prérie, travnatá step / which are suitable for agriculture.
The western part of Canada is very mountainous[mauntin s] and rocky[´roki] = skály
On the west coast there are Rocky Mountains. There are several lovely national parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The Appalachian Mountains occupy[okjupai] = zabírají /a small area in the south. The highest peak is the mountain Logan[log n] in theYukon.
- Nowadays there are a lot of farms in Canada and some Canadians [ké´neidj nz] are employed[im´ploid] = zaměstnaní /in farming[fa:min ] = zemědělství / A lot of farmland [fa:mlénd] = zemědělské půdy / in Canada is in the prairies. Canada is one of the biggest exporters[ik´spo:t z] = vývozců / of wheat.[wi:t] = pšenice
- chemical industry is highly developed / motor-car industry / Almost half of the land in Canada is covered by forests. Large forests provide = poskytují / wood for buildings, for furniture, for paper production. Halifax = the seat of Canadian shipping industry. Ships are built / are made on the banks of Great Lakes.