Freedom – maturitní otázka

angličtina

 

Otázka: Freedom

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Kůra

 

What is freedom

  • dictionary definitions:
    • “the right to act, speak, or think as one wants”
    • “the state of not being imprisoned or enslaved”
    • x freedom is too complex of a term to put it into a few words
  • the problem about freedom: “mine liberty ends where yours begins” (one can do as he/she wishes as long as his action does no harm to other people) = a principle most of the developed societies agree on – it sets a boundary that an individual must not cross – otherwise, he will be punished x  humans naturally crave power and some of them are willing to tie others down to gain it → punishment is necessary to prevent injustice from happening

 

Human rights and civil liberties

  • some of the fundamental human rights:
    • most of them are violated in non-democratic countries (the communist era in the CSR etc.)
    • freedom of speech, the press, worship, assembly, movement
  • two fundamental documents that insure equal rights for everyone:
    • human rights are discussed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
      • =a document adopted by the United Nations after the WW2 – created to prevent atrocities of the war from happening again
      • initiated by a group of women including Eleanor Roosevelt – wife of Franklin Roosevelt – the president of the US
      • declares that human rights are universal = everyone is equal regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, religion, wealth, abilities…
      • x even today eg. a gender pay gap is a thing in every country in the world (on average, women earn less money than men in the same position)
    • implemented in constitutions of democratic countries
      • the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms – a part of the Czech and Slovak constitution – cannot be abolished, adopted in the 90s before the split of CSR
  • violators of freedom
    • from without – by a totalitarian government
    • from within – assault, robbery, murder, domestic violence (a serious problem – the victims are too frightened and ashamed to let anyone know about it)
  • penalty for violating the freedom of others
    • absolutely necessary – otherwise some people would not even realize they are oppressing others (anarchy can never work as it would turn out to be the rule of the strong – humans naturally crave power)
    • two major forms of punishment:
      • judiciary (courts interpret and apply laws in legal cases)
      • social (contempt + exclusion from the society → lead to a certain death in the history – humans are hard-wired for pursuing compassion + social-adjustment)

 

Freedom fighters

  • =people engaged in a resistance movement against an oppressive government
  • Mahátma Gándhí
    • an Indian lawyer + leader of nonviolent resistance campaigns that lead to India’s independence from the British rule in 1947
    • he initiated the Salt March (a protest against British tax law which taxed salt, Indians marched many kilometres to get salt from the ocean rather than buying it)
  • Martin Luther King
    • an African-American Christian minister + leader of the civil rights movement
    • nonviolent resistance campaigns – he joined the Montgomery Bus Boycott (50s) (Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man – she was arrested – African-Americans refused to ride city buses)
    • March on Washington – “I have a dream” – the iconic speech (1963)
    • in 1964 discrimination based on race, gender etc. + racial segregation was outlawed





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