Otázka: Health and Diseases
Přidal(a): Nikola Púčeková
1. Healthy lifestyle
To stay healthy, we should drink a lot of liquids, eat regularly, eat a lot of vegetables and fruits, do some sports, sleep about eight hours a day, avoid stress, have some time to relax, do something active in the fresh air, think positively.
We shouldn’t drink too much alcohol, smoke, eat too much or too little, live with stress.
People in our part of Europe don’t live very healthily. They often work too much (long hours), don’t eat at least five times a day, drink too much coffee to keep them up.
2. Human body
1. hand, 2. face, 3. neck, 4. breast or chest, 5. back, 6. abdomen, 7. hip, 8. waist, 9. thigh, 10. leg, 11. knee, 12. calf, 13. foot, 14. eyebrow, 15. hair, 16. temple, 17. forehead, 18. earlobe, 19. eye, 20. cheekbone, 21. nose, 22. collarbone, 23. lip, 24. chin, 25. neck, 26. shoulder
3. Diseases (illnesses):
– children’s diseases: measles (spalničky), chicken pox (neštovice), rubella (zarděnky), mumps (příušnice), scarlet fever (spála)
– flu, fever, cold, cough, tonsilitis (angína), sore throat (bolest v krku), pneumonia, allergy
– headache, toothache, stomach ache
– cancer, AIDS
– high or low blood pressure, heart attack (infarkt), stroke (mrtvice)
– diarrhoea, vomit
In some periods, people are more ill: for example in autumn or early spring, lots of people catch a flu. Sometimes we talk about „flu epidemics“; during that time, some schools must be closed because lots of pupils or students stay at home with a flu.
In some situations, injuries may happen. We can injure ourselves while doing sports (when we go skiing or snowboarding, playing football or ice hockey, skating, roller blading, riding a bicycle). We should be very careful and in some sports we must use helmets and protectors.
Lots of injuries happen at home. We can get burnt (by fire, by some hot drinks or boiling water), cut our fingers or hands (with knife, scissors), fall off furniture, skid on something and break our legs or arms.
When we fall and hit our head (for example on the floor or on furniture) we can have a concussion (otřes mozku).
Very bad injuries happen in car crashes and dangerous sports. Some injuries may lead to death.
Light diseases can be treated at home (flu, tonsilitis etc.). You must stay in bed, take pills or other medicaments (treacles – sirupy, drops – kapky, sprays). We should measure our temperature, keep calm, drink a lot (black or herbal tea, tea with lemon).
More complicated diseases must be treated in hospital.
6. AT THE DOCTOR’S
We know several kinds of doctors:
– a general practitioner
– a dentist, a psychiatrist, a cardiologist, a neurologist, a surgeon, an allergologist etc.
We go to the general practitioner (GP) when we feel bad: we have high temperature, feel sick, have a cold etc.
First, we have to wait in the waiting room. Then we are called in and the nurse wants to see our health insurance card. She looks for our medical record (documentation). Then we can go to the surgery. The doctor asks what is wrong with us and then he examines the body. Sometimes we have to open our mouth and the doctor examines the tonsils. We can get injected or the doctor prescribes some medicine. Then we go to the chemist’s and buy the medicine. Mostly, we have to stay in bed until the next check-up (kontrola).
Lots of people suffer from allergies today. We can be allergic to animals, dust, sun, flowers and trees in bloom.
We have skin rash, red eyes, we sneeze and cough, sometimes we can’t breath normally. Allergic people must take pills or be vaccinated.
Health and diseases
Health is one of the most important things in our life. Everyone knows it but if you are healthy, you usually don’t appreciate it. You often realize it when your parents or one of your relative is seriously ill.
The human body is permanently being attacked by many different kinds of bacteria, microorganisms, and viruses. Most diseases can be prevented or at least controlled.
The common illnesses are: a cold/nachlazení/, influenza /chipka/, a sore throat /bolest v krku/, tonsillitis /angina/.
How can we get fit? We should have a regular daily routine with enough of sleep and regular food. This food should be healthy. It means that our food must contain a lot of vitamins. But we should drink no or a little alcohol, we shouldn’t smoke and take drugs. Physical training is very important for healthy life – do some sports or go for walks. I think it’s much better than sitting for a long time at the computer or watching TV.
Medical care in the Czech Republic with recent reform of public health service is not as free of charge /bezplatný/ as it was. We now have to pay a small charge every time we see a doctor. We also pay for prescriptions, stay in hospitals and medicines although some of them could be entirely paid by insurance company /pojišťovna/.
In every bigger city, there is a health centre or a hospital. In the hospital there are many departments – surgery /chirurgie/ with surgeons, dental department with dentists, eye department with oculist, dermatology department with dermatologist, ear and throat department (ORL) with ear and throat specialist, pediatry with pediatrist, and maternity hospital /porodnice/ with gynaecologist.
In some places with fresh air or hot wells can be sanatorium or spa where people can take a bath, have a water treatment, have a massage or remedial exercises.
In our republic everybody has to be insured /pojištěný/. In our Health Insurance System employers pay health insurance for their employees. But private persons have to pay for their insurance themselves. The state pays the insurance for children, students and retired people.
We can suffer from various illnesses beginning with common children diseases such as: measles /spalničky/, chickenpox /neštovice/, mumps /příušnice/ or scarlet fever /spála/. Usually we suffer from common infections such as colds, influenza or sore throat. We usually stay in bed, drink herbal teas, take pills, drops or vitamins and after a week or two we feel well again. However the situation may sometimes be more serious and needs special treatment in the hospital, e. g. heart attack, breaking an arm or leg, or in the case of some real dangerous disease such as tuberculosis, anaemia /chudokrevnot/, pneumonia /zápal plic/, leukaemia, diabetes, etc. The doctors’ care must be very attentive because human life is in danger. It is the same situation with all possible operations and surgeon interferences. It is enough to say that there are still diseases which cannot be cured such as cancer or AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). These illnesses have arisen /vznikl/ recently /nedávno/. We can do everything, but we can’t change anything. Maybe the doctors invent /vynaleznou/ medicines for these illnesses.