Otázka: History of GB
No one knows when the first man lived in this area but first documented nation were Iberians. They used flint and learnt to use bronze. From this era come Stonehenge and other huge stone constructions. But we don´t surely know why that built it and how they did it…
The Celts crossed from continental Europe, they lived in tribes and worshipped nature gods. They used iron and mined tin (těžit cín).
Julius Caecar came in 55 before Christ. The Romans organized Britain as a province and built many camps, forts and roads – to linking their camps. From this era come Hadrian´s wall that was built to protect Britain from warlike peoples of Scotland. Other monument from this time is Caerleon in Wales – one of the biggest and the most important military locality in Europe. There are remainders of an amphitheatre and spas.
The Anglo-Saxon Period. Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons and Jutes) made many raids along the coast. In 450 AD they began making permanent settlements. Christianity was brought here and England became a rich country.
The Danish Invasions. In the 800´s, the Danes (Vikings) began attacking the island. England was divided with the Danes. The longest and the best of Anglo – Saxon poems is Beowulf.
The Normans. A Norman duke, William, landed an army in England and defeated English king at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. William the Conqueror was crowned king. The Normans brought feudalism and the French language to the country. England became a feudal society.
The Hundred Year´s War. The Hundred Year´s War was a war between England and France, lasting from 1337 to 1453. In about 1349, the Black Death epidemic struck England.
The War of the Roses. The War of the Roses was a civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Lancaster used a red rose as its emblem whereas the York used a white rose.
The Tudor Period. This period is notable for the decline of feudalism.
The English Reformation. Henry VIII was the head of the Catholic Church in England. He was a selfish, extravagant sovereign.
The Reign of Elizabeth I. This period is often called „the Golden Age“ of English history. Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558 and had the qualities of a powerful and popular monarch. England prospered.
The Stuarts. King James VI of Scotland was the heir to the English throne when Elizabeth died in 1603. The two nations were joined under one king, but they were ruled as seperate kingdoms. James I was not a popular ruler. In 1605, Guy Fawkes and some Catholic fanatics tried to blow up the king and Parliament.
In 1607 English colonists founded Jamestown in Virginia, the first permament colony in America. To escape from James, one group of persecuted Protestants (the „Pilgrim Fathers“) sailed to America in 1620.
The Civil War. The Civil War broke out in 1642. Men who supported the king were called Royalists whereas Parliament´s greatest support came from the Puritans.
Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) led his army in a series of victories. King was beheaded in 1649. Oliver Cromwell ruled until his death and than the Stuarts were restored as rulers of England.
Great Britain. In 1707 Parliament passed the Act of Union joining Scotland to England and Wales. The new kingdom was called Great Britain.
The House of Hanover. During the reign of Hanovers the empire was growing. It´s the period of the Industrial revolution.
The Loss of America. The king decided that the American colonies should pay the huge debt. Colonials refused and the GB lost 13 American colonies.
The Reign of Victoria. The Reign of Victoria began in 1837 and the British empire reached its greatest power.
Britain participated in both World Wars.
In 1952, Elizabeth II came to the throne and she has been succesfull queen till now.
In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became Britain´s first woman Prime Minister.
Government of GB
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. She is also the supreme commander of the armed forces and follows the advice of the Cabinet. The British Parliament is one of the oldest in the world. It includes sovereign, the House of Lords with hereditary members (its head is Lord Chancellor) and the House of Commons with elected members. Scotland has its own Parliament. Ministries are apointed by the Queen and the Cabinet is made once she has discussed this with the Prime Minister. The United Kingdom has two major political parties – Labour Party and Conservative Party.
History of the USA
Vikings in 1000 AD discovered North America. Before Columbus discovered it, there live only native Indians here. In 1607 a colonizing company, founded in London sent the first colonists across Atlantic. They landed in Virginia and called their settlement Jamestown.
The second English colony was set up in 1620. The colonists were Puritans and they were persecuted in England and decided for religious reasons to go to America. The first group became known as Pilgrim Fathers. Their little boat was called Mayflower. They established their settlement Plymouth.
To celebrate first harvest the colonists celebrated Thanksgiving Day in 1621. It is celebrate to today every fourth Thursday in November.
British government started to charge new taxes on goods so colonists thought that could be tax only by their own assemblies so they refused to pay taxes. British soldiers were sending to Boston. In 1773 a group of patriots dressed as Indians, throw a cargo of British tea into Boston Harbour. It´s called as Boston tea party. Americans began boycotting British trade.
In 1775 in Lexington, war began. Later George Washington took over the command of “continental army”
On 4th July in 1776 Continental congress as national government agreed on the Declaration of Independence.
In 1783, war finished when GB signed the peace treaty and recognize the USA.
19th century is era of expansion and social reforms became important as well – Abolition of slavery.
Many northern states abolished slavery by the year 1830 but southern economy was based on large planets. About 60 years of never ending discussions let to a civil war – between north and south. It is the worth period in American history. It started after A. Lincoln was elected president in 1860. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and this granted freedom all slaws. North won in 1865. After the war, Lincoln was associated.
In 20th century the USA took part in the 1. and the 2. world war.
Now in 21st century the 1st Afro-American president – Barack Obama was elected.
Government of the USA
The USA is federation of 50 states and District of Columbia where we can find capital – Washington – it isn´t state…
The federal government has 3 branches:
Executive power – the President + Executive office;
Legislative power – Congress that is divided into 2 parts: the Senate and the House of Representatives;
Judiciary power – the Supreme Court and all other Federal courts
President is elected for four years and may only be elected twice
2 most important parties: Democratic (more liberal) and Republican party (about private, individuality…)