Otázka: Means of communication
A few centuries ago people knew only a few kinds of communication. They could speak to each other, they could send their message from one place to another by smoke signals, they used mail. Later on, they also had some newspapers. The first expansion of media was when the radio and television were invented. The second and the biggest boom started in 1960s when the first communication satellite was launched into orbità(vyslán na oběžnou dráhu).
There are 4 main media: Newspapers, TV, Radio, the Internet. Today´s people take this as an ordinary thing and they don´t realise that we can´t remember all that things.
Our world is very huge and sending a message from America to Asia a hundred years ago was nearly impossible or it took a lot of time. Nowadays you can send the message in a few seconds and it is very simple. The media make the world much smaller – particularly the TV and the Internet. When you turn on the TV or a computer you can see whole world like it would be in the next village. You can learn the culture and habits of their nationalities, you can see what they are doing right now. The world ai also called “ the global community village”.
There are not only good things about media. Firstly there always some information that are not true. We have to be careful about it but when you listen to media for a long time you can find some companies which are nearly always true. Secondly there is a danger of being influenced in the bad way ( lot of pornography on the Internet, lot of action films on TV – if you are a famous person the media very often take very big piece of your privacy.)
Newspapers are dailies or weeklies. There are the oldest kind of communication but we can say that are today quite old – fashioned. They are not flexible because when something happens you can not read in until the next day. You can read some newspapers on the Internet too. Newspapers still have their own magic. People are tired of looking in a box and it is very nice to buy newspapers, have a cup of coffee and a breakfast in the garden.
3 main kinds of newspaper:
a) Broad sheets(a quality papers )
- very pages, hardly and colour pages, not too photos, more difficult language, if focuses on some topic – more details and facts, longer articles, nearly about everything (culture, money…)
- smaller pages, dramatic headlines, lots of colour pages, plenty of photos, short articles, sensations, simple language
c) Special interests magazines
- they are issued weekly or monthly, they intent on special hobbies (gardening, computers…)
- they are much more expensive than daily newspapers but they are printed in better paper
We can find entertainment, advice or gossip in them. There are magazines for women, focused on cosmetics, fashion, family problems, relationship problems etc. Magazines for men write about cars, motorbikes, computers, technical news etc.
Magazines for children content puzzles, stories, fairy tales, pictures, colouring pages etc.
There are also some magazines for children and teenagers interested in science.
2. TELEVISION AND RADIO
TV is maybe the most widespread media in cultivated countries. It is a media with the biggest strengths – it can influence us very much because of its “moving pictures”. With coming of communication satellites you can choose from variety programs ( news, children´s programs …) They use lots of advertisements because they want to earn money ( if the channel in more popular they earn more money). Some people say that it is needless to have so much adverts but I think that it is good because you can choose which product is the best for you, but it is true that they sometimes lie and many of them are absolutely stupid.
- Kinds of programs: children´s, current affairs, discussion, gardening, art, nature, history, film review, action series, weather forecast, quiz shows…
- Broadcasting in BG and CZ: GB- 5 channels: BBC 2 (these two do not have adverts), ITV, Channel 4, Channel 5 + satellite programs
CZ – ČT 1, ČT2, Nova, Prima + satelitní programy
Radio is the second oldest kind of media. Although we nowadays have TV radio is still very popular. It has lots of advantages:
- You can take it nearly where you want ( very popular in a car)
- Because it is mostly used for listening to music it is very good for relaxing
- It is very often used for a background sound, it can notify about events quicker than a TV
- At present the radio is very well developed so if you have a good receiver you are able to choose which kind of programs you like to listen to ( PTY)
- You can also notify people about traffic jams
Disadvantages: you can not see the “ moving pictures”
Kinds of programs: current affairs( news), discussions, music – all kinds, culture, weather forecast, sports events and matches, breakfast radio…
At present you can choose from lots of channels, some of them are state: ČRo1, but most of them are private: Orion, Hellay, Radio City…
Broadcasting in GB
- the seat of BBC is in London
- the total number of program hours is 800
- there work about 120 journalists
- at the listening centre they listen to other 35 languages and many programs – they want to find out some new news
Very huge world – wide, very fast, lots of information – more than in TV, it costs a lot of money to have Internet today because you have to pay the provider ( he has the entrance to Internet and you have to pay the telephone if you use modem, hard link costs at least 10 000 crowns a month…But you can find there everything if you know how to find it.
A few years ago, more people used to write letters than they do today. It is slowlier than sending e-mail, and it is quite expensive nowadays. You have to go to the post office box or to the post office to send a letter.
Nevertheless, the post plays an important role in internet sale and catalogue sale. You choose the goods on the internet, in the convenience of your home, and the goods are delivered to your door. You have to pay the postal charge (about 90 or 100 crowns).
5. TELEPHONE, MOBILE PHONES
The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell at the end of the 19th century. Since that it has changed a lot. A few years ago, many families used to have their phone lines in their homes. In the last decades, mobile phones started to be popular.
For some people it is a kind of fashion – they boast with their modern mobiles. Old mobiles had black and white screen and you could only make phone calls or text.
Modern mobiles are multifunctional. You can not only make phones calls and send short messages with your mobile, but you can also take a photo, shoot a video, get connected to the internet, find vocabulary in foreign language, you can use it as an alarm clock, play games etc.
Lots of people are addicted to the internet or to their mobile phones nowadays, which seems to be a problem, because some of them forget to live and spend their free time in a normal way