- ways of transport (on land, by air, on water) and means of transport for each category, their advantages and disadvantages
- various reasons for travelling, why people travel so much
- public transport
- influence of transport on environment (good or bad, ways to change it)
- travelling abroad
- travel agencies
- my ideal holiday (travel related)
Travelling and holiday
Ways of transport
Nowadays the travelling is favourite activity how to spend free time. The transport can be defined as a movement of people, food and other things from one location to another. Transport is very important to nation´s economy. The transportation industry is the largest industry in the world. It includes manufacture and distribution of vehicles, the production and distribution of fuel and the provision of transportation services. We can travel on land, by air or on water. They can use a lot of types of vehicles. The travelling on land is the easiest way how to move to some place. A bus, train and car are the most widely used for travelling. A motorbike and bicycle are mainly used for short distance travelling. Buses ride along defined routes and according to pre-published schedules. Buses operate in both city streets and highways. Almost in every bigger town the bus is used as a public transport. There is a special type of bus – a trolley bus. The trolley bus uses electricity from overhead wires in streets. It reduces pollution and noise, but it limits the route the trolley bus can take. The big bus which can carry over 100 passengers is called a coach. A coach is used for travelling for long distance. The advantage of travelling by bus can be availability. Bus services link all major towns and villages. A fare is relatively cheap. There are cut-price fares for students, the retired and the disabled. The modern buses are comfortable. The main disadvantage is overcrowding. A train consists of engine and passenger cars. Some passenger cars are divided into sleeping cars, restaurant cars, into smoking and non-smoking department, into first or second class. Each carriage has its toilets. The train rides on railways. When we want to travel by train we have to pay for a ticket (single or return) in a railway station. We should go to a platform and wait for the train. Trains also go according to pre-published schedules. A conductor control tickets in the train. We can rest during the way, we can have a meal or we can sleep in the train. Trains are reliable, comfortable and punctual. Disadvantage might be waiting for connection or dirty carriages. A car is the most widely used vehicle in the world. It is used on public roads. The typical passenger car can carry five passengers. There are many safety features such as air bags or seat belts. To be able to drive a car we have to pass driving tests and obtain a driving licence. We should obey the traffic rules. The car is speed and comfort. We are independent on public transport. We can go anywhere and stop where we want. But the car is expansive, it pollutes an environment and travelling by car is very dangerous. Travelling during the rush hour is irritating because of traffic jam.
Travelling by air is the quickest way of travelling, but the most expensive of all. The typical vehicles for air transport are plane, balloon, airship, helicopter and hovercraft. If we want to visit distant country we probably choose a plane. We can reach the remote place just in few hours. Travelling by plane has special rules. We must be at the airport a little earlier. Before getting on board, we have to check-in our luggage, go to customs and show them our passports or visa. After that we should go to the departure hall to our gate and wait for boarding. When is time to boarding we should show our boarding pass to flight attendant. We can get on the board and find our seats than. The captain welcomes and informs about the flight to the passengers on board before taking-off. The crew shows where we can find life jackets or oxygen masks. Meals are served on board from food tray and we can watch a film during the flight. We mustn´t smoke or use mobile phones. We have to fasten our seat belts during the taking-off or landing.
Travelling by water was popular and most used in the past. It has been the only way how to get across the ocean. Nowadays ships are mainly used tourism. There are big ships reminding of floating hotels that cruise all over the world. Pleasure crafts are very popular, including yachts and small boats. The transport by water is still popular in England Channel from Calais to Dover. There goes ferry that takes many cars and passengers. The fare is very expensive and we should wait for connection.
Reasons for travelling
People have to travel or they want to travel. They have to commute to work, to school, to the hospital, to the shops, to the petrol station, travel because of their profession (taxi drivers, flight attendant, sailors, business men…). When some people commute regularly to the same place they are called commuters. They want to travel to emigrate, to culture or sport events, on holiday, to visit relatives in a family. People travel because of development of tourism and travelling industry. They are curious. They want to know exotic and remote places, understand language or learn new life attitude.
The public transport provides cheap means of transportation in bigger towns and cities. Customs may pay the fare with discount cards or they may prepay a pass for specific period of time. Cities often have a heavy traffic and fewer parking spaces than smaller towns have. The most common types of public transport are the bus, the tram, the underground and the taxi. The tram is electrically powered vehicle. Power is received from overhead wires. The only tram system in USA is in San Francisco. The underground is called the subway in USA, the metro in Europe and the tube in London. It is the rapid rail transit which operates under ground. It can carry a large number of people. A taxi is a car with driver available for hire. It is more flexible than other types of transport. It has characteristic light on the roof signalised whether the vehicle is available for hire. The taxi is usually more expensive than public transport. The fare meter is in the taxi and we can check rising price. Disadvantages are – lots of people, we can´t wherever you want, delays. Advantages are more ecologic, less price, you don´t have to take care of your own car.
Influence of transport on environment
Almost everybody use transport every day. It affects our environment. Air pollution caused by exhaust fumes is harmful for human health. Mainly in cities are more water and noise pollution, powder and smog. Lots of vehicles during the rush hour cause traffic jams. Landscape is divided by the roads. Roads are dangerous for drivers and pedestrians. Drivers don´t obey the traffic rules, they drive very fast, drink before driving. They cause car accidents. Reasons for car accidents also can be bad weather (foggy, slippery).The possible solving might be using public transport, going for walk on shorter distances, using bicycles, catalyst in cars, removing our car to natural gas or electricity, making areas in centres where cars can´t go in, making more parks and green places.
Travelling abroad, travel agencies
If we haven´t experience with travelling abroad or if we are simply lazy for arranging the journey, the easiest way is going to the travel agency. There we should arrange the time and choose a destination and an accommodation. We can choose from the internet or from travel books the best accommodation for us. We choose between hotels, boarding house (bed and breakfast) or youth hostels for students. Each hotel provides some facilities and equipment such as internet, mini bar, TV and so on. In some hotels are meals included. We can choose whether we want full board or e.g. breakfast only. Then customs arrange the transport. Somebody also arrange the insurance, pay special tax for travelling by air, pay for organised trips by delegate.
We can go on holidays in the summer or in the winter. Ski lovers go to the mountains in the winter. Families travel to the south countries to the sea. They swim and relax there. Special type of going abroad is Euroweekend. This trip lasts only two days during the weekend and it is cheap. Other type of trips is going sightseeing. Special holiday is a journey to the jungle, wild nature or to the exotic places. Young people often go abroad in order to learning a language.
My ideal holiday
I would love to travel all around the world and see all the wonders of the world. I prefer summer holiday. The best holiday might be time spending with my family or friends somewhere far away by the sea. I would like to visit Australia, see the Great Wall of China, experience Victorian Waterfalls and meet elephants in the Africa. I am interested in Roman history so the brilliant holiday could be visiting Roma for longer time.