USA – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (4)

 

Otázka: USA

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Oldřich Pekárek

 

Geography

The United States of America cover an area more than 9 000 000 sq. km. It is composed by 50 states, the majority of the mentioned states are contiguous and belong to North American continent. Except Alaska and Hawaii, because the solidity of their borderline is interrupted and the Hawaii is not the part of the continent at all.  USA have the neighboring borderline with Canada in the north and the south border is shared with Mexico. One part of the border with Canada is natural made by the Great Lakes Region. Between Lakes Erie and Ontario are all over the world known Niagara Falls. Among the largest rivers belong Mississippi and Missouri river. The highest mountain is Mount McKinley in the Alaska Range, which is approximately 6 000 m high. USA is filled by the natural beauties, most of them are under protection in the national parks, for example Yellowstone NP, Rocky Mountains NP, Grand Canyon NP.

The USA population is about 250.000.000. Around 80 percent of Americans live in urban areas. Ethnic representation of American habitants’ shows, that most of the Americans have white complexion (79), 12 percent are black and the rest are Asian, Pacific islanders, Indians and Eskimos. The most used language is American English but various ethnic minorities speak their original languages (Chinese, Spanish).

The American flag consists of 13 red and white stripes with the blue field in the left up corner, where the 50 stars are deployed.  Each star represents one of the 50 states and each stripe represents one of the founding state. Declaration of independence signatory

The USA can be divided into four parts:

The 1st area is centre of heavy and light industry in The North and the North East with dominant cities such as New York – the biggest port and Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence was composed. (U can use written)

The 2nd area is The Middle west of Great Lakes. Here agriculture is closely connected with industry. The urban centre of the second section is Chicago, the city where the highest skyscraper is situated. It is called Sears Tower.

The 3rd area is the agricultural South with the mainly black population. There is also the formal capital – Washington, D. C. Other big city in the region is New Orleans, the home of jazz.

The 4th area is called the Far West. It is the largest area, but it has the lowest population. San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego are the largest cities here. The city of casinos, Las Vegas is also situated here.

 

History

Now I would like to tell you something about the history of the USA.

In 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America and met Native Americans (Indians) on the continent. The first English colony was founded in Virginia in 1607.

In 1620 the ship named Mayflower brought a group of English Puritans, who had left England to avoid persecution. They are known as the Pilgrim Fathers. They founded the colony in the north-east coast called Plymouth. But winter in new country was cruel, that caused many deaths. The next year in October 1621 they celebrated the first harvest, the day of celebrations of harvest become very popular and spread into the world as the annual custom. During the 17th century Pilgrim Fathers were followed by new settlers from England, France, Netherlands and Ireland.

In 18th century, British government raised the taxes on the colonies to cover the costs of the wars against France. In 1773, North Americans, dressed as Indians, emptied the cargo of British tea into the sea. This Boston Tea Party marked the beginning of the War of Independence (1775-1783). The colonists wished to rule the country by themselves, after the debates they choose George Washington to lead the continental army, and march with his regiments to victory and independence. He was regarded as the father of his country, and later he was elected as the first President of the new created United States. In 4th of July 1776 the Declaration of Independence was adopted and the USA was established.

In 19th century, never ending negotiations about slave’s freedom between the industrial manufacturers of the North, who wanted to develop the infrastructure, free the slaves and provide them the working places in the factories, and the agricultural South, whose prosperity was depending on the additional slave workforce. The bad relationship (the word rancor fits here perfectly) between North and South grew into the Civil War. It started in 1861 after election of Abraham Lincoln as President. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 which granted freedom to all people. Two years later the Union Forces won the War.

 

Cities

New York City

New York is city of 18 million inhabitants, skyscapers and many extremes, for example it is the largest city in the USA with the largest seaport.

NY is distributed into five districts: Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island and Manhattan.

Now, let me tell you little bit more about the Manhattan district

(And now, I’d like to tell you something about Manhattan.) The financial centre of the world and the most famous borough of NY as well for its skyline and the skyscrapers. It is separated from the mainland by Hudson and East River. Manhattan was built accordingly with a modern plan of streets and avenues – most streets stretch from east to west. The streets are marked by numbers instead of names, most avenues run from north to south. The Fifth Avenue is one of the most attractive promenade for tourists because of St. Patrick’s Cathedral. The 5A gains its popularity from the ubiquitous shops as well. 5A also divides the East Side from the West Side. The beautiful, tranquil Central Park is located is the north part of M. It is the lovely place especially created to make you feel relaxed. (blabla.. You can speak about Central Park the whole hour…). Other important place for New Yorkers is the Lincoln Center – a cultural point Metropolitan Opera House, the New York State Theatre and Avery Fisher Hall. And (and is not needed) finally the symbol of freedom, the Statue of Liberty, we can find stands on south of M. on Liberty Island. (The final sentence about NY something like). The Statue of Liberty shows the visitors the greatness of American freedom…

 

Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia)

Washington isn’t only the national capital and legislative, administrative and judicial centre, but go with probably the most beautiful and originally designed city in the USA.

The plan of streets and avenues is typical for Washington same as for NY. The streets run lead from north to south marked (marked is ok, but we use that before, so you would better go for identified) by numbers. While the east-west streets are lettered.

Let’s move to the most significant places in W. The first is Capitol, the seat of House of Representatives and the Senate, which is the start of The Mall. If you are planning to visit W, your trip will probably start at the Mall, a national park in downtown, which is bordered (you overused this word before don´t you try to use surrounded) by many important institutions. The Mall is passing through the Washington Monument. It is the city’s most famous landmark and it is dedicated (use devoted) to the memory of the first American President. We are moving on our path to the Lincoln Memorial. It is built in classic style of a Greek temple. The monumental statue is towering to the ceiling inside. That is the sculpture of Abraham Lincoln sitting in a chair like some monarch from the medieval ages. Other distinct landmark (simply sight) is Jefferson Memorial in honour of the third President.

The White House has been the residence of every American president except George Washington. It is very attractive place for tourists. (one of the most attended places by sightseers in the whole USA).

And finally, other (never use finally together with other!) (The last, but not least I must mention…) some interesting places bound into the name John Kennedy, John Kennedy Centre for the Performing Arts, national cultural centre, or moving Arlington National Cemetery, were is the last memory of all war veterans, who died on the battlefield for their country trough years. Their sacrifice must not be forgotten. If I would travel to Washington, it would be the first place, what I want to visit.

But in my point of view not only this memorial or Washington, but complete United States are worth visiting. (Last sentence must be more monumental like 🙂 I have a dream, one day I will visit all these places which I am describing myself. I am looking forward to visit such a fabulous place!






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