Australia – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (7)

 

Otázka: Australia

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): fisik

 

 

 

 

I divided my topic into 4 paragraphs. At first I´d like to talk about basic facts about political system and subdivision, than about geographic features, fauna, flora and pollution. Next I´d like to mention some information about Australian history and in the end I will speak about places of interest.

The official name of country is the Commonwealth of Australia. Australians flag has the Union Jack, 5 stars that represent the constellation Southern Cross, then a large star for the countries, states and territories. The country is a British dominium, it means that the head of the state is queen Elisabeth II. represented by the Governor-General. The Queen holds an official power but the real power has got government. It’s a constitution monarchy with democratic and federal system. The head of government is the prime minister. But the government in individual state is lead by the premier.

The federal parliament consists of 2 houses 76-member Senate and 148-member House of Representatives.

Executive power carries out the prime minister and Cabinet. Now let me mention something about political subdivisions. The country consists of 6 states and 2 territories.

The capital city is Canberra since 1927, which is the seat of the Federal Parliament.

Australia is both the world’s largest island and the smallest continent. It’s the only continent, where is single country. It’s situated in the south of Asia between the Indian and Pacific Ocean. The official language is English. There are about 20 Million inhabitants.

Australia’s climate changes from warm to subtropical. 80% of the country suffers from drought, that’s why there are so many deserts. There are 4 main deserts in center Australia. There is a special desert with red sand Ayers Rock, the largest piece of stone in the world.

In the Pacific Ocean there is the Greatest Barrier Reef, which is the world’s largest coral reef, it is 2000 km long.

The highest peek is Mt. Kosciusko (2228 m), which lies in the Australian Alps. The longest river of Australia is the Murray and the Darling, with many creeks.

Typical animal species are marsupial e.g. koala bear, Tasmanian devil and so one.

Australia was settled by Aborigines about 50 000 years ago.

The Dutch were the first Europeans, who discovered Australia in 17th century. James Cook, the British explorer, declared (clamed) Australia of Britain (join Australia to Britain) in 1770.

In 1788 the first colony was established (founded) in today’s Sydney harbor. Australia was originally used as a British prison colony. In 1850´s gold was discovered and a lot of people moved to the country.

Australia became an independent nation in 1901.

Now let me talk about places of interest, Sydney lays in New South Wales State. It’s the Australian’s biggest city. There are almost 60 km of beaches. The famous Sydney Opera House looks like waves when they break on the beach.

Canberra lays in Australian Capital Territory, it is national capital since 1927. It’s mostly designed by American landscape architect Walter Burley Griffin.

Melbourne is Australians second largest city and national financial and commercial center. It’s a center of their national sports soccer and cricket and also horse races.

We can find there also many parks and gardens such as Royal Botanic Garden, Tasmania and island off the South-eastern coast. More than 1/5 of Tasmania is covered by national parks e.g. South-west national park, which belongs to a World Heritage Side of Unesco.






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