Otázka: Great Britain
Britain lies in the north-west coast of Europe across the English Channel, the Strait of Dover and the North Sea. It consist of two large island – Great Britain and Ireland, and about 5 000 smaller ones (e.g. the Isle of Wight, the Isles of Scilly, the Isle of man, Anglesey, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, the Shetlands and the Channel Islands).
England is mostly rolling land, rising to the Uplands of southern Scotland. The main mountain regions here are the Cornish Heights, the Cambrians, the Cumbrian Mountains, the Pennines and the Cheviot Hills (are on the border between England and Scotland). The Highlands of Scotland are the highest mountains in Britain – with the highest mountain Ben Nevis 1342 m.
The longest rivers are the Severn (354 km) and the Thames (336 km). Another river is Avon. There are beautiful lake areas in Cumbria and the Highlands of Scotland.
British Isles have milder climatic due to the Gulf Stream which comes from the Gulf of Mexico.
The population is about 60 million people. In Britain we can find the following ethnic groups: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Ulster, Indian, Pakistan and other(Jews,Italian, Chinese, Caribbeans).
The majority of people speak English. There are minority languages which are of Celtic origin – Welsh, Scottish and Irish Gaelic.
3) GOVERNMENT TYPE AND ADMINISTRATION
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as the head of state. But the political power is in the hands of Prime Minister (David Cameron). Britain is divided into four parts: England (London), Wales (Cardiff), Scotland (Edinburgh) and Northern Ireland (Belfast). Each country has got own symbol. England has a Red rose, Wales has a Defoder and Leek, Scotland has a Whistle and Northern Ireland has a Shamrock.
Locally is Britain divided into counties. The capital of the whole Britain is London. Other big cities are Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, Bradford and Bristol. Britain is the member of nearly all important international organizations.
The currency is one pound. The anthem is “God save the Queen.” British national flag (sometimes is called “Union Jack”) consists of three crosses (white, red and blue). England has St George’s cross (red cross),Scotland has St Andrew’s cross (white cross) and Wales has St Patrick’s cross(red cross).
4) INTERESTING PLACE
There are many fascinating places. Oxford and Cambridge are the old university towns. Stratford upon Avon is the birthplace of William Shakespeare. Fine sandy beaches and a nice atmosphere have Brighton, Blackpool, Scarborough. Cantebury is an ancient city with majestic cathedral.
Winchester – once it was the capital of England. In Salisbury Plain we can see a beautiful historic monument of Stonehenge with giant stone circles which are more than 3000 years old. Birmingham is the geographical heart of England and is the second largest city in Britain. Liverpool is a birth place of Beatles.
Is sometimes called the land of castles. The land is full mystery and beauty. There are snow-capped mountains, green valleys, sea resorts and big cities (Cardiff, Newport)
Is a historically and culturally separate country from England. It has own legal and education system. Scotland is the land of many special traditions which cannot be found elsewhere in the world – playing the pipes, qualitytweeds, woolen knitwear, wearing kilts made of tartan and Scotch whisky.
The biggest city is Glasgow – the cultural centre. Edinburgh is dominated by imposing 12th century castle – Holyroodhouse. The north of the country is a large lake and mountains area. The biggest lake is Loch Lomond and Loch Ness (is famous for “Loch Ness Monster”.