Otázka: Henry VIII Tudor
Henry VIII Tudor
- 28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547
- Reign : 21 April -28 January 1547
- King of England, Ireland until his death
- was the second monarch of theTudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.His mother was Elizabeth of York
- Catherine of Aragon, 1509
- Anne Boleyn, 1533
- Jane Seymour, 1536
- Anne of Cleves, 1540
- Catherine Howard, 1540
- Catherine Parr, 1543
- his older brotherArthur, Prince of Wales was the first heir of the throne. He had a wedding with Catherine of Aragon (daughter of spanish king and queen). Soon after the marriage, Arthur died.
- the next heir to the throne — Prince Henry married Catherine of Aragon
- Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of theChurch of England from the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
- His fights with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
- He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with France and the Habsburg monarch Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (King Charles I of Spain).
- Charges of treason and heresy were often used to remove people , those accused were often executed without a formal trial.
- He achieved much of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, many of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour for exampleThomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer.
Marriage to Anne Boleyn
- Cranmer, sitting in judgment , declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine of Aragon null and void. Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be valid. The queen gave birth to a daughter Elizabeth.
- The queen was pregnant but she miscarried. Later she was pregnant again. and she was afraid of the consequences if she failed to give birth to a son.
- Later that month, the King was badly injured and it seemed that the king’s life was in danger. When news of this accident heard the queen, she was sent into shock and miscarried a male child. Henry tought that she couldn´t give him a heir of the throne, he executed her.
- five men, including Anne’s brother, were accused of having sexual relationships with the queen. Anne was also arrested, accused of incest. Although the evidence against them was unconvincing, the accused were found guilty.George Boleyn and the other accused men were executed on 17 May 1536. On 19 May 1536, Anne was executed onTower Green.
- The day after Anne’s execution in 1536 Henry became engaged to Jane Seymour, On 12 October 1537, Jane gave birth to a son,Prince Edward, the future Edward VI. His birth was difficult, and the queen died
- Henry declared his children by Jane to be next in the line of succession.
Marriage to Jane Seymour
Henry’s obesity was probably the reason of his death at the age of 55 on 28 January 1547 in the Palace of Whitehall,He was buried St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle.
- 7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603
- Nickname:Gorgiana, Virgin Queen
- Reign: 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603
- Father: Henry VIII, mother Anne Boleyn
- the fifth and last monarch of theTudor dynasty
- When Elizabeth was just two years old, her mother was beheaded for adultery on the orders of her father and she was exiled from court.
- In later years Catherine Parr, Henry’s sixth wife, took a keen interest in the young Elizabeth and made sure that she was educated to the highest standards. She spoke fluently in 6 languages.
- In 1553, Elizabeth’s older half-sister Mary became queen. Mary was determined to re-establish Catholicism in England and viewed the Protestant Elizabeth as a direct threat. Elizabeth was briefly imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1554 following a failed rebellion, of which she hadn´t any information.
- In November 1558, after the death of Mary I, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne.
- Some see Elizabeth’s 45 year reign as a golden age of English history.
- Elizabeth’s first priority on becoming Queen was to return England to the Protestant faith.
- Elizabeth helped create a Church of England that, although Protestant, allowed some of the old Catholic traditions to continue.
- Elizabeth’s reign also expand its trade overseas and in 1580 Sir Francis Drake became the first Englishman to successfully circumnavigate the earth.
- The arts in England during this period as Shakespeare, Spenser and Marlowe created poetry and drama while composers such as Byrd and Tallis worked in Elizabeth’s court.
- She went on 25 regional visits known as ‘progresses’ during her reign, often riding on horseback rather than traveling in a carriage.
Mary, Queen of Scots
- In 1568 Elizabeth’s cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots – a Catholic with a strong claim to the English throne.
- Many Catholics wanted to have Mary on the English throne.
- Elizabeth imprisoned Mary and kept her under constant surveillance for 19 years. But she didn´t want to act against her.
- However, in 1586 was uncovered the Babington plot which implicated Mary to overthrow Elizabeth. Mary was tried for treason and executed in 1587.
- Philip II of Spain with his a great fleet of ships, known as the Spanish Armada, tried and overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism.
- Elizabeth united the country against this common enemy. she said: ‘I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king – and of a King of England too.’
- Partly aided by bad weather, the English Navy defeated the Spanish Armada, with the help of Sir Francis Drake.
- Elizabeth always refused to marry and provide an heir.
- She insisted that she was ‘married’ to her country.
- Elizabeth died at Richmond Palace on 24 March 1603, and was succeeded by the Protestant James VI of Scotland, the son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots.