History of Great Britain – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)



Otázka: History of Great Britain

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Nikol Moravcová




  • the first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europe
  • they lived in the south of England

–  Stonehenge was built by these early inhabitants

  • Stonehenge – the largest prehistoric monument, a huge circle of standing stones on Salisbury Plain


–  they appeared on the island in 750 B.C.

– they were divided into tribes (kmeny), one of them was called Britons and the whole island was named Britannia



  • the first roman invasion was led by Julius Caesar in 55 B.C.
  • in AD 43 an army of 50 000, led by Aulus Plautinus, stepped ashore (břeh) and established (prohlásit) Britain as a province of the Roman Empire
  • The Romans changed the culture and landscapes of Britain forever. They built firtresses (pevnosti) and tors, rous, bridges, amphitheaters, temples..
  • Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years


Alfred the Great –  was the best-known among the Saxon kings, was very intelligent and well educated and translated books from Latin into Old English



  • One of most important kings was William ´the Conqueror´, Duke of Normandy

– he defeated (porazil) King Harold in the Battle of Hastings
–  however, the crowning Ceremony in Westminster Abbey failed to give him full kontrol of the whole country



  • it wrote King John in 1215, he signed Magna Charta
  • his Charter limited the absolute power of the king in favour (ve prospěch) of the barons
  • later it garanted personal and political freedom of every Englishman



  • against France
  • the war ended in England´s defeat


THE WAR OF ROSES (1455–1485)

  • a civil war between the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose)
  • peace was made when Henry VII of Lancaster married Elizabeth of York
  • The other famous sovereign (panovník) is HENRY VIII, who was 17 when he became king.
    – He had 6 wifes – first – Catherine of Aragon, provided (opatřit) him with a daughter, but no male her (dědic).
    – In order to divorce her, he broke with the Roman Catholic Church and he declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England.
    – He had two more children with the other two wifes – Elisabeth and Edward


  • MARRY I. was the first Queen Regnant (nezískala trůn díky sňatku s králem)
    – An Act of Parliament in 1553 declared her illegitimate removed her from the succession to the throne (následnictví trůnu)
    – she wanted to get married and have children to have her
    – she married Spanish King Philip, but it was unpopular
  • ELISABETH I. , the Virgin Queen, returned England to Protestantism. She refused to marry or name her successor (nástupce) as marriage could have created foreign aliance difficulties (spojenecké smlouvy)

  – Elisabethan age, Virginia (first English colony in the North America)


  • Scottish King James VI. Became KING JAMES I OF ENGLAND and both countries were linked (spojeny)
  • From 1642 to 1649 there was a CIVIL WAR, and Oliver Cromwell declared England a republic. The Stuart Monarchy was restored (obnovena) in 1660.


  • QUEEN VICTORIA was another worveign who gave name to an era.
    – She married Prince albert and had 9 children, most of whom married into European royal
    – During her life she bacame a symbol of the continuity and stability of the British life.
    – She had reigned than any other British monarch.
  • In 1921, Ireland declared independence (samostatnost)
  • The Monarchy´s importace increased (vzrústal) at home and abroad.



  • Britain still remained the greatest sea power and colonial power but it lost its position as the greatest financial power
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