Otázka: History of Great Britain
Přidal(a): Nikol Moravcová
THE EARLY HISTORY
- the first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europe
- they lived in the south of England
– Stonehenge was built by these early inhabitants
- Stonehenge – the largest prehistoric monument, a huge circle of standing stones on Salisbury Plain
– they appeared on the island in 750 B.C.
– they were divided into tribes (kmeny), one of them was called Britons and the whole island was named Britannia
- the first roman invasion was led by Julius Caesar in 55 B.C.
- in AD 43 an army of 50 000, led by Aulus Plautinus, stepped ashore (břeh) and established (prohlásit) Britain as a province of the Roman Empire
- The Romans changed the culture and landscapes of Britain forever. They built firtresses (pevnosti) and tors, rous, bridges, amphitheaters, temples..
- Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years
Alfred the Great – was the best-known among the Saxon kings, was very intelligent and well educated and translated books from Latin into Old English
BATTLE OF HASTINGS (1066)
- One of most important kings was William ´the Conqueror´, Duke of Normandy
– he defeated (porazil) King Harold in the Battle of Hastings
– however, the crowning Ceremony in Westminster Abbey failed to give him full kontrol of the whole country
THE GREAT CHARTER OF LIBERTIES
- it wrote King John in 1215, he signed Magna Charta
- his Charter limited the absolute power of the king in favour (ve prospěch) of the barons
- later it garanted personal and political freedom of every Englishman
THE HUNDRED YEAR´S WAR (1337–1453)
- against France
- the war ended in England´s defeat
THE WAR OF ROSES (1455–1485)
- a civil war between the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose)
- peace was made when Henry VII of Lancaster married Elizabeth of York
- The other famous sovereign (panovník) is HENRY VIII, who was 17 when he became king.
– He had 6 wifes – first – Catherine of Aragon, provided (opatřit) him with a daughter, but no male her (dědic).
– In order to divorce her, he broke with the Roman Catholic Church and he declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England.
– He had two more children with the other two wifes – Elisabeth and Edward
- MARRY I. was the first Queen Regnant (nezískala trůn díky sňatku s králem)
– An Act of Parliament in 1553 declared her illegitimate removed her from the succession to the throne (následnictví trůnu)
– she wanted to get married and have children to have her
– she married Spanish King Philip, but it was unpopular
- ELISABETH I. , the Virgin Queen, returned England to Protestantism. She refused to marry or name her successor (nástupce) as marriage could have created foreign aliance difficulties (spojenecké smlouvy)
– Elisabethan age, Virginia (first English colony in the North America)
- Scottish King James VI. Became KING JAMES I OF ENGLAND and both countries were linked (spojeny)
- From 1642 to 1649 there was a CIVIL WAR, and Oliver Cromwell declared England a republic. The Stuart Monarchy was restored (obnovena) in 1660.
- QUEEN VICTORIA was another worveign who gave name to an era.
– She married Prince albert and had 9 children, most of whom married into European royal
– During her life she bacame a symbol of the continuity and stability of the British life.
– She had reigned than any other British monarch.
- In 1921, Ireland declared independence (samostatnost)
- The Monarchy´s importace increased (vzrústal) at home and abroad.
BETWEEN THE TWO WARS
- Britain still remained the greatest sea power and colonial power but it lost its position as the greatest financial power