Holidays and celebrations (UK, USA, CZE) – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

  Otázka: Holidays and celebrations

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Ter

 

 

 

 

 

Holidays and celebrations (UK)

-in UK we called official days off bank days

-the banks close for a day and so do most businesses and services

-New Years Day – is the first bank holiday in the year

-May Day – is in early May

-Spring Bank Holiday – at the end of May

-Summer Bank Holiday – at the eng of August, when there is a mass rush to the seaside

-Christmas and Easter are also considered bank holidays

-in Northern Ireland, there is also Orangeman´s Day on July 12th → this commemorates the victory of the protestant Prince William of Orange over Catholic King James in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, which strengthened the Protestance dominance of Ireland

 

Cultural festivals

Edinburgh festival and the „fringe“

-the Edinburgh festival and the „fringe“ with its music and drama také place each August in the city

-aspiring actors, singers, comedians and dancers hire local venues to perform their work to small audiences

Glyndebourne festival opera

-the attraction apart from opera is that you can picnic with champagne and cucumber sandwiches on the laws and in the gardens of Glyndebourne

Glastonbury festival

-in Somerset in England is a major contemporary music festival that také place in the fields of farm in June

-many groups and musicians have played here such as Coldplay, Kaiser Chiefs and Paul McCartney

The BBC proms at the Royal Albert Hall

-from July to September each year in the Royal Albert Hall in London is the venue for the world´s largest classical music festival

-traditional English tunes such as „Land of Hope of Glory“, the unofficial English national anthem, are sung

Notthing Hill carnival

-the end of August is carnival time in London

-steel bands, parades and calypso competitions bring music, rhythm and the colour of the Caribbean and Brasil to the streets of Notthing Hill

 

American federal holidays

-New Years Day – on the 1st January

-Martin Luther King Day

-this day remembers a man who worked for equal rights among all races and

-is celebrate on third Monday of the month

-President´s Day – in February, the third Monday of the month

-honour all presidents of USA

-it was originally held in honor of the birthday of first American president George Washington (on February 22)

-Memorial Day – in May, the last day of the month

-this is also a unofficial start to summer

-this holiday is held to remember the soldiers who were killed in wars

-Independence Day (the Fourt of July – this is when Americans begining as an independent nation, free from British rule

-is held always July 4, and if it falls on a weekend either the Friday or the Monday is day off


-Labor Day
– celebrates working people

-sadly, it is also often signals the end of summer and the start of new school year for students


-Columbus Day
– the second Monday in October

-this day comemorates explorer Christopher Columbus´ landing in the New World in 1492


-Veteran´s day
– the second Monday in November

-was originally established to honor people who served in World War I

-now it honors all veterans of any war


-Thanksgiving
– held on the fourth Thursday of November

-was historically held as thanks for a good harvest

-people still get together with friends and families for a good meal

-Thanksgiving bring the unofficial start to the Christmas shopping season

 

Czech Republic Holidays

January 1

-the first of January is New Year´s Day

-this day also marks the beginning of the independent Czech Republic

-the Czech Republic came into existence on January 1, 1993 after the separation of Czechoslovakia into 2 states – the Czech and Slovak Republic (on December 31, 1992)

-reality: it is the day after the New Year celebration so most Czechs try to get over their hangover

-those Christians who are sober attend mass to give thanks for the previous year


Easter Sunday and Easter Monday

-Easter is the most important Christian holiday, celebrating the ressurection of Jesus Crist

-Jesus was crucified on the cross on Good Friday and came back to life on Easter Sunday

-in the CR is the mixture of Christian and pagan traditions

-on the morning of Easter Monday, boys and men whip girls and women on their bottoms with a willow stick to make sure they stay healthy for the rest of the year – as a reward girls treat them with hand-painted eggs

-reality: kids get a lot of chocolate sweets and adult men are often treated with a shot of alcohol, so they can get very wearyin the middle of the day if they visit a few female friends


May Day, International Worker´s Day, Labour Day (May 1)

-is celebrated to remember a strike by American workers in Chicago that took place on May 1, 1886

-the strikes were demanding an 8-hour working day

-it is celebrate in many countries as International Worker´s Day or Labour Day

-in Czechosovakia before Velvet Revolution this day way „joyfully“ celebrated by all the workers

-it was obligatory to také part in the parade during the socialist regime

-reality: nowadays it is another day off; May 1 has become a day of love when lovers kiss under blooming cherry trees


Liberation Day (May 8)

-this day celebrate the end of the WWII in Europe

-Soviet troopes captured Berlin, which led to German´s unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945

-in some parts of the world, however, WWII continued

-the American army was still fighting with Japan

-Prague was liberated in the morning on May 8, 1945 by the Soviet army

-reality: ceremonial acts také place; the Czech president, political representatives and WWII veterans commemorate the end of the war by placing flower wreaths at memorials of the victims of WWII


Saints Cyril and Methodius Day (July 5)

-a day to remember Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius who came to Great Moravia in 863to spread Christianity

-they created the Glagolitic alphabet

-reality: religious celebrations také place, as well as masses and processions remembering the two brothers that brought Christianity to Central Europe; the Majority of Czechs enjoy a day off at the beginning of the summer

Jan Hus Day (July 6)

-on July 6 in 1415, religious reformer Jan Hus was burned at the stake in Kostnice

-Jan Hus was a priest and reformer who blamed Catholic representatives for unholy behaviour

-reality: because it is two consecutive days off, Cyril and Methodius on July 5 followed by Jan Hus Day, Czechs také 2 days off and join them with the weekend and they spend it at their summer cottages

 

St. Wenceslas Day, the Date of Czech statehood (September 28)

-whole nation remembers the main patron of the Czech state

-Wenceslas was one of the early Premyslid dukes of Bohemia

-in 935 he was murdered by his younger brother Boleslav I.

-he was the 1st ruler to suffer martyr´s death and many legends were created afterwards

-reality: one of the longest squares in Prague is named after this historical figure; the statue of Saint Wenceslas at the top of the square is popular meeting point


Independent Czechoslovak Day (October 28)

-on this day the Czechoslovak state declared independence at the end of the WWI in 1918

-until that time Czech and Slovak countries had been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

-the first president T. G. Masaryk wrked from exile on the formation and later the recofnition of Czechoslovakia as an independent state

-reality: on this day the president of the republic gives honours to people who did special deeds


Day of the Fight for Freedom and Democracy (November 17)

-a day when we remember very important milestones from our history

-in 1939 Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia and proclaimed in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

-Czech students demostrated against the occupation and the demonstration was brutally suppressed

-in reaction, Czech universities were closed by Nazis on November 17

-in 1989 the Velvet revolution started as a student demonstration against the communist regime

-this day commemorates the struggle and fight for freedom

-reality: this day is little more than a day off for most people; some bring flowers and light candles on Národní třída and other places connected with the Velvet revolution


Christmas (December 24-26)

-Christmas Eve (December 24) – celebration of the birth of baby Jesus; his arrival in this world was announced by a comet tha appeared in the sky

-reality: most important feast day of all the Czech holidays, in the morning is decorated Christmas tree, vegetable soup is usually served for lunch, in the evening the family gathers together to have traditional dinner that consist of fish soup and carp with potato salad, after dinner people get presents under the Christmas tree

-Christmas Day (December 25) – it is not celebrated by a special manner in the CR but the day is a time for family visits

-St. Stephen´s Day. Second Day of Christmas (December 26) – family reunions continue






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