Ireland – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (4)

 

  Otázka: Ireland

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Niki

 

Location

  • it lies on the British Isles, occupies about five sixth of the total area of Ireland
  • the rest of the island is occupied by Northern Ireland, a part of the UK

 

Geography

  • an island country separated from Britain by the Irish Sea
  • it resembles a basin/a bowl, as there is a central flat plain surrounded by mountains
  • the longest river is the Shannon

 

Landscape

  • green meadows and pastures for cattle, no forests, lots of lakes – in Irish language called loughs, forestless mountains, moorlands covered with heathers, steep cliffs

 

Climate

  • mild and very wet (it is caused by the Gulf Stream)

 

Names of the country

  • English: the Irish Republic/the Republic of Ireland; Irish Gaelic: Éire; the Emerald Island

 

Population

  • 4 million people; thanks to the immigration in the past more than 20 million people of Irish origin live in other English speaking countries, mostly in the USA

 

Irish flag

  • a tricolor with three vertical stripes – the green colour symbolizes the Emerald Isle and the Catholic majority of the people, the orange is the colour of the Protestants, the white in the middle expresses the need for peace and understanding between them

 

Languages

  • two official languages – Irish Gaelic (Celtic language), English (Germanic language)

 

The Emerald Island

  • Ireland is on the same latitude as Canada but has completely different weather and landscape – there are palm trees; high temperatures and a lot of rain enable the grass grows all year long -> it is one of the greenest places in the world

 

Political system

  • an independent country set up on democratic principles
  • used to be a part of the UK, then became a member of the Commonwealth (left 1949)
  • the head of the state is the President (elected for 7 years) who appoints the members of the government headed by the Prime Minister, the government is responsible to the two-chambered National Parliament
  • it consists of 4 provinces and 26 counties

 

Economy

  • traditionally based on agriculture, the country lacks natural sources like ores, coal etc.
  • they produce beef, dairy products, Irish Whisky, Irish linen
  • recently new industries (electronics, light engineering…) have developed

 

Animals and plants

  • the most spread animal is the cattle, the most typical plant is the heather – moorland
  • it is the only country in Europe with no snakes – according to the legend St. Patrick drove them out into the sea

The peat – where the ground is forever wet, dead plants do not rot but compress, blacken and change into peat – it is a spongy black matter, people dig it out

 

Dublin

  • founded over 1,000 years ago by Vikings, more than 1 million people, no skyscrapers
  • the landmarks are: St. Patrick´s Cathedral (founded in 1190), the Trinity College, the Customs House, the Guiness Brewery- produces beer from roasted barley corn

 

Other towns

  • Limerick, Cork, Galway, Waterford

 

Places of interest

  • it is the country full of castles or their ruins in typical Irish landscape
  • it is the country with numerous neolithic monuments
  • it is the country with picturesque landscape, steep cliffs and wide valleys

 

Bunratty castle – one of the best preserved Norman castles

Neolithic monuments – very old (New Stone Age), made from big stones – megalithic

Newgrange – the most famous and mysterious place not far from Dublin

  • was probably built 500 years before the Great Pyramids of Egypt
  • looks like a small hill on the top of a real hill (symbolizes the Mother Earth expecting a baby)

 

The Cliffs of Moher

Irish festivals
St. Patrick´s Day (17th March) – the day of wearing of the green celebrated all over the world

Outstanding people

Jonathan Swift – Gulliver´s Travels

Oscar Wilde – The Importance of Being Earnest, The Picture of Dorian Gray

James Joyce – The Ulysses

G. B. Shaw – Pygmalion






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