- It is the capital city of the UK
- The seat of the British kings, queens an government
- Financial and cultural capitals
- It is the 9th largest city in the world – its population is about 10 million (with suburbs).
- London is situated on the river Thames in south-east England.
- London can be divided into two parts: the City of London (financial center) and the City of Westminster (the center of administration and the government). Or we can divided London into four parts: The City of London, Westminster, West End and East End. The City of London is the oldest part but it is only a very small part. It is a business, financial and economical centre. Many people work there but nearly no one live there. There are a lot of banks (Bank of England), government offices and also well known London Stock Exchange. Westminster is time-honoured ward of west London. There are most of places of interest as Westminster Abbey or Houses of Parliament. West End is the shopping and entertainment centre with many shops, theatres, cinemas and clubs. East End used to be a poor dockland area but it has been changing. Now it is rapidly developing area. Everyone is moving there now. It is full of yuppies and BMW’s. Yuppies are young people with high incomes and fashionable lifestyles.
The city’s history is very rich.
In 1st century it was founded as a centre of Roman province Britain. From 7th century it was a seat of Anglo-Saxon kings of Essex. After 1066 it became a capital of England.
- 43 AD-Londinium (Romans lived there) ->now the city of London. Romans built London wall (mile-1,6 km)
– Vikings came (earlier capital city-Winchester)
- 1066-William Conqueror (Vilém dobyvatel) came to the England. He and his sons considert London important (Westminster Palace and London Bridge were build)
- 1348-50- Black Death (mor)-from China. 20 000 people died.
- Elizabethan Era- 220 000 people.
-expansion theatres (Globe)
- 1665-Black Plague killed 70,000 people.
- 1666-The great Fire of London (It started in Pudding Lane; 80% destroyed, 9 people died)
-The great fire in 1666 destroyed almost all the city because the houses was made of wood but it ended the great plaque which troubled people at that time in London. Then the houses were built of rock.
- Mainly architect in new London
- London from stones
- Author of Saint Paul’s Catedral (1675-1708)
- 1750-Westminster Bridge
- 1762-Buckingham Palace-architect“ John Nash
- 1694-Bank of England-1st of the World
- 1863-London underground
- 1940/1-Bombing (East London destroyed)
- 1948/2012-Summer Olympic Games
- 2000-celebration of Millenium
- July 2005-terrorist attack
- London Eye-project of European country. Driving takes 35 minutes.
- Tate galery->Tate New Modern Galery
- now-7-8 mil. people
- Oxford circus-The most popular square
- Christie-Mousetrap (theatre play)
To London we can get by plane: • Heathrow – the biggest in the Europe
– big huge terminals
– you can use underground there
– the only conected to underground
By train: Europe tunnel – it was bulit in 1986, the first in history
From Europe to London we must go over English channel
London is situated on the river Thames – you can come to London by a river (boat trip, piersmolo , cargo shipnákladní doprava , boat transportation) – very important for transport and tourism
We can see them by walking or by various means of transport. London’s famous red double-deckers go almost everywhere. For fast transport we can go by the Underground. It is the oldest underground in the world. It opened in1863 and ran 4 miles from the west of London to the City in the east. Very famous but a little more expensive way of transport are taxis. London taxis drive round the centre of the city looking for custom. Taxis are often called cabs, from the French word cabriolet, which is a nineteenth-century word for a coach drawn by a horse. Traditional taxi-drivers are proud of their knowledge of London. They have to know every street in the 113 square miles of central London.
Some places of interest:
The Houses of Parliament are in gothic style but were built only between 1840 – 1852 after the old building had burnt down. The only part which escaped the fire was Westminster Hall. It has clock tower – Elizabethan → inside is Big Ben.
From three parts:
- 1. king or queen
- 2. house of Lords
- 3. house of Commons
Whitehall is the street where the government offices are.
Downing Street 10 is the official home of British Prime Minister.
Westminster Abbey was founded in the 11th century. Britain’s Kings and Queens are crowned here. England’s artists are buried here in the Poet’s Corner. It is place where many state occasions and royal weddings take place.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is one of the largest cathedrals in the world. It stands in the City. This great renaissance dome is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren and it was built in the 17th century. Prince Charles and Lady Diana were married here. From Globe to St. Paul’s Cathedral is Millenium path (=bridge)
The Tower was built in the 11th century, it is complex of buildings, the oldest is White
tower It served as the prison. It is a museum now. The Crown Jewels guarded by the Beefeaters in their traditional uniforms are kept here.
Tower Bridge is one of the symbols of London. It was built only in the last century. It can open in the middle and let large ships go through.
Trafalgar Square was named after Admiral Nelson’s victory over Napoleon at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson’s statue is situated on a high column. The square with its fountains is a very popular place for various meetings and demonstrations.
The British Museum is the largest museum in the world. It houses the biggest collection of all kinds of animals and minerals. There is a collection of fine and applied arts of all countries, periods and styles.
Buckingham Palace is the Queen’s residence. One of the biggest London’s parades is Changing the Guards here. in front of there is Gold statue of Queen
– it is a symbol of Great fire (1666)
– to renemeber this situation
the Bank of England
– commercial bank
– the oldest bank
The Post Office Tower – the tallest building in Great Britain.
Piccadilly Circus, Regent Street, Oxford Street are the most famous shopping centres.
There are many parks in London, e.g. Green Park, Regent’s Park, St. James’s Park. The largest of them is Hyde Park. It is also known for its Speaker’s Corner where anybody can have a speech.
Kew Garden is the Royal Botanical Gardens with the largest collection of living plants in the world.
The Mall-road from Trafalgard Square across Admiral Arch into Buckingham Palace (road is red)
- Almost free
- British museum– Old but beautiful new design
– Many departments
- Museum of London
- Science Museum
- Victoria and Albert Museum
- Madame Tussauds Museum
- Sherlock Holmes Museum
- Leicester Square – For movie premier
– In the middle statue Ch. Chaplin
- Wembley Stadium– Football stadium
- Emirates Stadium– Football stadium
- Swimming pool – On the grounds of Olympic games
- London has a lot of parks
- Hyde Park – Huge area, beginning between Marble Arch and Buckingham Palace
– Serpentine lake
– Horse riding, jogging
– In the middle is the road, second part-Kensington Garden-there live princ William and Kate)
- St. James’s Park
- Regent’s Park – There is most oldest zoo in London – London Zoo
- Greenwich – On the hill is Royal Observatory (location of the prime meridian )
- Oxford Street – Very popular shopping place
-Intersects with other London roads including Park Lane , New Bond
Street and Regent Street
- John Lewis, Selfridges, Harrods – The biggest and most expensive shops
- Millennium Dome, London Eye, Tate New Gallery and Millennium Path celebrated New Millennium