London – maturitní otázka z angličtiny [12]

 

Otázka: London

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): AdelaEl

 

 

 

Adéla Elterleinová,8A

Basic information
London is a beautiful city situated in the West Europe on British Islands. With a population about 7 million people, it is one of the most densely populated and largest cities in Europe. It is the capital of the Great Britain likewise the seat of government and the British Queen. It is also an important commercial, business and cultural centre. Its great architectural masterpieces attract many tourists from every countries of the world each year. Because of immigrants large amount of different ethnic groups live there. The river Thames flows through London and its banks are connected by many bridges.

 

History
London was founded by Romans around 43 AD as Londinium and since then it has been an important place for trade and culture. In 1066 when William the Conqueror invaded the country, London became the capital of England.  In the 17th century it was a seat of famous Shakespeare´s Globe Theatre. London survived the arrival of plaque, which was also called The Black Death, but almost 100,000 people died. The large area of the city was destroyed by the Great Fire in 1666, because the houses were made of wood. During the World War I it was damage just a little bit, but the World War II left many valuable buildings in ruins.
London is divided into two basic parts. The first, the City of London, is now a financial and business centre. The second, the City of Westminster includes Parliament and the West End shopping.

In London we can visit many historical significant sights and I would like to name a few of them.

 

Tower of London
The Tower of London, concretely The White Tower was built by William the Conqueror in 11th century as a symbol of his power and also as a defence against attack from other countries. It was a setting of many historical events like imprisonment and executions. Anne Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII, was executed there. It was used as a royal palace then as a prison and one there was a zoo. Now the Crown Jewels are kept there.

 

The Tower Bridge
It is a characteristic landmark of London. Built between 1886 and 1894, it is named after the Tower of London that stands next to it. The well-known bridge spanning the river Thames has a hydraulic mechanism, which can raise or lower the bridge to permit the passage of high ships.

 

St. Paul´s Cathedral
St. Paul´s Cathedral is a seat of the Bishop of London. The previous building was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666. Then the great architect Christopher Wren reconstructed it into a cathedral, which is today the second largest. Only the St. Peter´s cathedral in Rome is largest. The cathedral is famous for the Whispering Gallery which runs around the dome inside. When you whisper the word against wool on the one side, it can be heard near the wall on the opposite side.

 

Houses of Parliament
The clock tower on the northwest of the Houses of Parliament is one of the most famous symbols of London. The Big Ben is only the bell inside the tower, not the tower itself. The tower is almost 100 metres high and the bell weight 13 tons.

 

Buckingham Palace
It is one of the most famous palaces in the world and Londoners often call it just “Buck House”. It has been used as a royal residence since the reign of Queen Victoria, who came to the throne in 1837. Changing of the guard is a popular event thus many people want to see it.

 

Trafalgar Square
The Square often occupied by pigeons is the busiest part of London. The Nelson´s Column standing in the square was built in honour to Admiral Nelson, who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.  Four large sculptures of lions and two beautiful fountains are placed there.
The National Gallery is located on Trafalgar Square and includes one of the largest collections of art in the world.

 

Westminster Abbey
The gothic cathedral from 11h century is the place of coronations.  Many English king and queens are buried there. In the cathedral in Poet´s Corner the British finest poets are buried, e.g. William Blake and Robert Burns.

 

Piccadilly Circus
It is an important place, where the major roads are connected.

 

Transport
London has got an excellent network of public transport. London’s underground is the oldest in the world and it started working in 1863. The city’s bus line is known for its famous red double-decker buses. If you sit on the top deck, you will get a nice view. There are 5 airports in London. The Biggest are the Heathrow and Gatwick.

Besides many sights there are also beautiful parks in London. The grass is always green, because it rains a lot. The Greenwich Park is well-known, because the Prime Meridian passes through it.






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