Man and environment – otázka z angličtiny

 

  Otázka: Man and environment

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Eliška Růžičková

 

 

 

 

  • Definition

= what surrounds us, in what people, animals and plants develop and exist

– consist of flora, fauna, water, air and soil

– however, people do not always care about the environment as they should

– we tend to prefer our own convenience and luxury to healthy natural environment

(want more cars, bigger hauses, the latest computer technology, etc. to make our life more comfortable) → all of this growth pollutes nature and environment

– the most serious ecological problems of today: the pollution of air, water and soil, the extinction of many species of animal and plants, the weather changes, acid rains, global warming, the destruction of tropical rain forests and the breaking of the ozone layer

 

  • Air pollution

– nowadays hot topic

– we can divide pollution into many categories; 3 main: air, water and soil pollution

– essential for life (not only for humans, also for animals and plants)

– although all living beings share the air, only people pollute

= release of particulates or other harmful materials into the Earth’s atmosphere → can possibly cause diseases or even death of organisms

– in my opinion, large role in creation of a.p. plays traffic (cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles, and planes are an integral part of our contemporary way of life X they all produce fumes, which often get trapped in the cities, causing smog in heavy congested areas)

– another factor: heavy industry (some factories emit sulfur dioxide → wind spreads it in all directions; when SO2 mixes in the air with rainwater it causes acid rain – pollutes water and soil)

– also natural sources of a.p.: volcanic activity, smoke from wildfire etc.

greenhouse effect      = process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, re-radiated in all directions (towards the surface and lower atmosphere)

– 4 main gr. gases: water vapour, carbon dioxide, methan and ozone

– result: elevation of the average surface temperature

– intensified by human activities (cutting of forests, burning of fossil fuels)

global warming     = a consequence of g.e. (caused by increased concentration of gr. gases, especially carbon dioxide)

– observed rise in the average temperature of Earth’s climate system (not just atmosphere, also oceans)

– started at the beginning of 20th ct.

– scientists believe the main culprits are people (deforestation, fossil   fuels,… emit carbon dioxide – the largest driver)

– result: changes in global water cycle, melting icebergs and reduction of snow and in global mean, the rise of sea levels

the hole in the ozone layer   – ozone layer as a filter for the sun in stratosphere (absorbs UV

radiation, which causes skin cancer)

– caused by the industrial and technological way of life of the previous century (freons = poisonous gases containing chlorine in sprays and aerosols banned in 1970‘s)

– nevertheless, it is getting larger

 

  • Soil and water pollution

– connected with acid rains

– factories and power plants do not pollute only the air itself but also the soil and water

– many factories do not have an efficient cleaning system and they discharge their waste into the water system

– also polluted by common households

– in the majority of houses, chemical based cleaning products are used

– people often do not recycle their trash and they waste energy and water

 

  • Conclusion

– many environmental organisations: Greenpeace (an international organisation which fights against pollution), The Green Party e.g. in Britain, CZ

– environmentalists point to the most serious ecological problems, try to give their warnings to people through the mass media and public campaigns

– many of their activities have been successful and made the governments pass useful laws → the use of DDT was banned, smoking in public or work is restricted in many countries

– all over the world there are acts concerning air, water and animals

– I think the concern for the environment should be definitely a part of the people’s lives






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