Otázka: Media, sport and big cities
Newspapers, radio, television, internet and the other media are very important for us. We can get through them the newest information from the whole world even if we are in the remotest village. These means of communication are called “mass media”. By mass media we can reach large or mass audiences. The press, radio and television are probably the most important today. Some people disown media, but they are very important to keep this world working.
One of the means of communication is internet. Internet has several advantages like: very fast access to information; it’s cheaper than everyday newspaper, e-mail, virtual reality. But there are some disadvantages: security, spam, virus, obsolete computer…
Problems of mass media are balance information (they should show both sides, but doesn’t happen), e-quality (majority don’t have enough space), control (rich men owning TV – powerful), censorship (there are some limits about state secrets, security of state, extremist ideas) and libel (pomluva). Absolutely freedom shouldn’t be (we shouldn’t write anything about anybody).
Sport and Games are activities that are well known for everybody of us. People started to do sports and games many years ago, but the biggest boom was the last century. With coming of new technologies people got new possibilities and new ideas how to spend their spare time for pleasure, but not only for it.
Sport are one of the most popular leisure time activities, are very good for active relaxation and are important for our physical and mental health. Sports can be defined as any activity that gives enjoyment or recreation. People do the sports because they want to keep fit. Sport is refreshing, can help take off some weight and makes use of one’s skills and strengths. During sports events one can meet a lot of new people. Sports can be a drug for some people. They develop their will and persistence. The majority of people do the sports as a hobby but some people do the sport as a job.
The Olympic Games are probably the most famous and important sports competition. The first Olympic Games were held in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. They are held every four years, they have their summer and winter parts which change once every two years. The modern Olympics were renewed in1896 by Pierre de Coubertin. Symbol of the Games is The Olympic Flag – there are five connected circles, each symbolises one continent (blue – Europe, black – Africa, red – America, yellow – Asia, green – Australia); and The Olympic Fire – it is traditionally lighted in Greek Olympia and moved to the city in which the Games are taking place, it burns during the Olympic games. All the fighting had to be stopped. The OG begin with an opening ceremony and all sportsmen introduce themselves. They swear to compete with honour, to be fair, not to be on drugs…
“He, who does not care for being instructed, you shall in vain try to instruct, unless you awaken in him a fervent interest in learning.” This was said by Jan Amos Comenius, the author of many other wise sayings
Prague is said to be the city lying right in the heart of Europe. Others call it “hundred-towered Prague”. Prague is the capital and the largest city in the Czech Republic. It is the seat of the president, parliament, government and other highest state and political bodies of the Czech Republic. Moreover a large quantity of social, cultural, educational and scientific institutions operate here. Prague is also an important business and financial center. Prague has a large number of monuments. The most famous are Hradčany, with Prague Castle which was founded in the ninth century. Prague became a center of European significance during the government of the king and emperor Charles IV who established the New Town and Charles University in 1348.
There is now a modern underground, but traffic is still a problem.
New York City is the most populous city of the United States with about 8 million people. It is also the biggest port in the USA. New York City is subdivided into five boroughs: Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island and Brooklyn. Almost all of the Bronx is situated on the mainland, but the other boroughs are situated on islands. In all, New York City comprises some 50 islands. It is one of the world’s leading commercial, financial, and cultural centers. There are 4 airports, 15 TV stations, 39 radio stations, over 100 hospitals, 29 universities, many cultural institutions, galleries. New York has the largest subway system in the world. It is sometimes called “The Big Apple
New York City, and particularly Manhattan, has many interesting architectural sites. There are quite a number of famous skyscrapers that dominate the skyline; the Flatiron Building, completed in 1902, was one of the first in the city. Others include the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, the group of buildings that make up the Rockefeller Center, and the World Trade Center, which is still one of the world’s tallest buildings. Other famous landmarks include the Statue of Liberty which stands on Liberty Island; Ellis Island, which served as the point of entry of immigrants to the United States from 1892 to 1954; Grand Central Terminal; and the United Nations complex. There’s Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, and Shea Stadium in Queens. Other major sports facilities in the city include Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. There are many attractive places where visitors like to go – some of the most widely known are Central Park and the Brooklyn Bridge.
London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. At the same time it is the largest city in the country, the residence of the monarch, the representatives of the Church of England, government representatives, Parliament, and the Supreme Court. London is the center of cultural, political and social activities. Tourists come here at all seasons of the year to visit the monuments, museums, galleries, scientific institutions, but also the theatres, of which there are about fifty in London.
London is home to about 9 millions inhabitants. London is one of the largest cities of the world – it occupies an area of 1600 km2. The metropolis is divided into Old London and thirty-two districts.
The city’s history is very rich. Several disasters have afflicted London. In 1665 the Black Plague killed 70,000 people. In 1666 the Great Fire broke out, destroying most of the city.
Despite this, many of London’s monuments have survived. Parliament is one of the most prestigious buildings in London. Its predecessor was Westminster Palace. It was built during the reign of King Edward and extended during that of William the Conqueror.
The typical symbol of the capital of Britain is the Tower of London. Its construction was started by William the Conqueror. Today the Tower is the best preserved fortress in the country. Many important personalities were arrested and executed there. At the present time it houses a museum.
Tower Bridge stands next to the Tower. This is the last bridge on the Thames before it empties into the sea. It was built in 1894. It has two characteristic towers with a height of 65 m.
The Temple is a district with Gregorian buildings and parks. Originally it was the Templar’s residence. Buckingham Palace has become the official royal residence. The royal family has lived there since 1837. During most of the year it is not open to the public.
Trafalgar Square is one of the most important squares. In the center of the square the statue of Captain Nelson was raised. It stands atop a 55 meters-high column.
Hyde Park – the foundations were laid out by King Henry VIII who had the park Westminster Abbey turned into an English park. In 1635 the area was opened to the public.
Westminster Abbey is the important historical building in London. The first church was built there as early as the 7th to 8th centuries. The present monastery was established by King Edward. The church is characterized by French Gothic influence.
Saint Paul’s Cathedral is the second most important church in London. In its present form the building started to come into being in the end of 11th century. Due to the thorough rebuilding, nothing is left of the original structure.
The National Gallery is situated inside a building dating back to 1838. Soon, however, the building was not sufficient and needed to be enlarged. The works of the world master painters are kept here – Rembrandt, Rubens, etc. Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum is an attraction for tourists. It contains wax statues that portray the most prominent people from all over the world.