Political system of the USA

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Otázka: The political system of the USA

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): a-mpytlikova

 

 

Political system

  • Federal republic
  • Each state has its own government, laws, taxes, customs, etc.

 

Government:

  • Federal: matters concerning the country as a whole – foreign affairs, defence and finance
  • State: governments of individual states

 

July 4th, 1776: The Declaration of Independence

1788: Constitution was officially adopted by the original 13 states

  • Sets three separated branches

 

Political power:

  • legislative – executive – judicial
  • System of Checks and Balances: none of them is given the ultimate power, each of them checks other branches and prevent from becoming too powerful

 

1) Legislative (Congress)

  • the supreme law-making body
  • seat in the Capitol in Washington D.C.
  • Senate: 100 members; each state has 2 Senators (voted for 6 years)
  • House of Representatives: 435 members, (voted for 2 years)
    • number of Representatives depends on the population of the state
    • 400 000 inhabitants cover one seat
    • The speaker of the house
      • Chosen by majority party
      • Assigns legislation to committees
  • Bill must pass both of them and be signed by the president before it becomes law
  • Tasks:
    • Make federal laws (declare war)
    • Deal with foreign treaties
    • Impeachment: the process by which a legislative body or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a public official for misconduct
      • Only the House of Representatives has the power to initiate the process

 

2) Executive (President Cabinet)

  • President of the USA
    • Chosen every 4 years
    • Can be in office max. 2 term in a row
    • Chosen by the Electoral College system
    • On the 20th of January of the new year the elected President and Vice-President are officially sworn into office
    • Has to be at least 35 years old
    • Current president: Joe Biden (2021), Democrats
    • First president of the USA: George Washington
    • Powers:
      • Proposes bills
      • Veto or refuses law
      • Appoints federal judges, ministers and Secretaries, ambassadors
      • Pardons criminals convinced of offences against the federal government
      • Makes treaties with the advice of the Senate
      • Leader of his political party
      • Military commander-in-chief
  • Vice president
    • Becomes a president upon the death, resignation or medical impairment of the President
    • Current Vice-President: Kamala Harris
    • Leading parties: the Democrats and the Republicans
    • Electoral College: the formal body which elects the President and Vice president of USA
      • Group of electors who elect the candidate (538 members)
      • Each state has a certain number of electors which depends on the number of the state’s representatives in Congress
      • Voters vote for the slate of electors who vowed to vote for a certain candidate

 

3) Judicial (Supreme Court)

  • Main instrument of the federal judiciary
  • The highest court in the land
  • Watches the President and Congress

 

Flag and National Anthem

  • Stripes and Stars
  • Adopted as a national flag in 1777
  • 50 white stars, 6 white and 7 red stripes
  • Representing 50 American states and the original 13 colonies
  • National anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner


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