Scotland – maturitní otázka (2)

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angličtina

 

Otázka: Scotland

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): KíťaCZ

 

 

Basic information

  • It is the country in the north of Great Britain, beyond Hadrian’s Wall
  • Scotland is divided into three natural regions :
    • The Southern Uplands
    • the Central Lowlands
    • the Highlands
    • Islands: Skye (The Skye Road Bridge)
  • pristine = untouch nature
  • small brook = wee burns, deep lochs, mountains
  • Edinburgh = Grey stone city
  • Glasgow: the third largest city
  • Aberdeen:
    • here is oiling industry (deposits of oil in North Sea)
    • oil rigs
  • Dundee
  • Andrew’s = city
    • large golf courses
  • fishing (salmon), golf, skiing

 

History

Settlement

  • Celts
  • Romans
    • the Roman Emperor Hadrian built a wall (from Carlisle to Newcastle) -> keep out wild Scottish tribes (clan) – Picts, Scots
  • Saxons
    • crossed the wall and made new border (hranice) – Carlisle to mouth of the Tweed (river)

 

Timeline

  • 9th centrury: Kingdoms of Scotland
  • After Norman Conquest -> many English families left England -> to Scottish Lowlands
  • Highlands for „true Scots“ – language Gaelic
  • 13th century: England tried conquer (zabrat) Scotland
  • 16th century:
    • Elisabeth I.    X     Mary Stuart
    • after the death of Elisabeth I. -> King James VI. (Stuart) -> Scotland lost an independence
  • in 1707 Scotland underwent komplete union with English parlament at Westminster
  • rebellions = insurrection continued
  • Charles II. Stuart („Bonnie Prince Charlie“) instigated (podnítit) The Battle of Culloden -> he mysterious disappear -> England decided to destroy Scottish culture „Disarming Act“ (Scots must speak English,….)
  • Scots emigrated to Australia, New Zealand
  • after 40 years Disarming Act was repealed

 

Today

  • Different: Scottish law, currency, education system

 

ECONOMY:

  • coal-mining, steel, shipbuilding
  • boosted economy -> discovery of gas, oil fields in the North Sea -> great number of jobs
  • electronic industry: in area known as Silicon Glen

 

Typical products:

  • textile industry: quality Tweed cloth
  • whisky (whiskey)
    • a perfect example of Scottish frugality
    • they used surplus (přebytek) barley -> malted, fermented, distilled
    • it´s distilled while heated over peat (rašelina) by using pure water
    • name of one: Isle of Skye

 

TRADITION:

  • bagpipes, drums, reels (Scottish dance)
  • traditional costume = kilt + cap with tassle

 

Clans and tartans

  • many true Scots belou to clan/tribe
  • many names begin with „Mac“ or „Mc“ = son of…
  • tartan = pattern textile
  • the stripes in different colours overlaps
  • variolus kind of kilt
    • green: for hunting
    • the black watch tartan: for supporters of the united government of England and Scotland
    • yellow: for oponent (oposition)

 

Hogmanay

  • celebrated in 31st December
  • group of friends
  • they sing „Auld Lang Syne“ and „Old Days Gone“
  • a stranger (shoudn´t be blond = Viking) comes to your home and he brings symbol sof plenty (a piece of bread, coal, coin) and he gets wee (small) dram

 

Burns´  Night Dinners

  • 25th January
  • celebrating the brith of Scotland´s greatest poet – Robert Burns
  • haggis
    • a sheep´s stomach stuffed with oatmeal, entrails
    • it brought to the table accompanied by bagpipe music
    • then stick dirk (ceremonial knife) into haggis while reciting poems by Burns
  • mashed turnip

 

First Footing

A Wake

 

Cities

Edinburgh = Grey stone city

  • the capital of Scotland
  • the historic part of city: many houses and stress made from grey stones
  • 2 castles:
    • Edinburgh castle: from middle age
    • The Palace of Holyroodhouse: official residence of the Queen
  • Edinburgh festival:
    • official part
      • dedicated to classical music and theatrical performances
    • The Fringe festival
      • street shows and performances
    • The Military Tattoo
      • a show of military bands
  • Statue of Boby
    • Skye terrier
    • dog, it kept vigil over grave of his master
    • from Robert Peeler
    • stands in Greyfriars Kirkyard

 

Glasgow = Dear Green Place

  • industry (shipbuilding) + port
  • miles of shipyards along the River Clyde -> the shipyards have closed –> the slums (slum = area for poor people) – revitalization (1990´s) = urban renewal project – for example: Burrell Collection
  • Burrell Collection – works of art by a Glasgow shipowner
  • now after revitalization Glasgow has slogan: Glasgow´s miles better
  • Glasgow Science Centre
    • three parts
    • Imax theatre
    • Science Mall = a titanium-clad building in the shape of cresce
    • Glasgow Tower – 127 m high

 

Places of interest

Inverness

  • Lochness tour

 

Loch Ness Monster = Nessie

  • Nessie: 6 m long, long and thin neck, small head, 2 or 3 humps (hrby)
  • first person who reported a monster = St. Columba
    • he was visiting the king of the Picts in 6th centuries
  • in 1880 next person was Scottish diver, then he refused to dive again
  • The Loch Ness Tourist Organization – collects all the evidence about the monster in a museum
  • Monster Exhibition = the museum

 

Ben Nevis = the highest peak of Scotland

  • Scotland is interlaced by canals (by human), they connects rivers
    • The Forth and Clyde Canal
    • The Union Canal (a system of sophisticated locks)
    • The Falkirk Wheel ( = a boat lift energy efficient, it takes as much energy as boiling 8 kettlers of water to more the boat)

 

Eilean Donan Castle

Glamis Castle

 

Balmoral Castle

  • queen lives here
  • prince Charles made the kastle energy independent
  • he built there hydroelectric and Plant fuels

 

Games

  • the biggest games are at Cowal
  • bagpipers and drummers play all day
  • throwing the hamer or „tossing the caber“ = thrrowing a large tree as far as possible
  • all athletes wear traditional kilts


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