Otázka: The Czech Republic and its capital Prague
The Czech Republic is often called the Heart of Europe. It occupies an area of 78 000sq km and has about 10,5 inhabitants. The Czech Republic has been a member of NATO since 1999 and a member of EU since 2004. The Czech Republic consists of three parts: Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. The Czech Republic borders on the Slovak republic in the east, on Poland in the north, on Germany in the west and south and on Austria in the south. The national flag consists of a white and red stripe and a blue triangle. The Czech anthem is in English “ where is my home” by J. K. Tyl. The Czech motto is in English “Truth Prevails”.
The Czech Republic is a democratic state. Its political system consists of three branches: Legislative, Executive and justice. The Czech Republic has got a written constitution. The Parliament consists of two chambers: The Chamber of deputies (200 deputies, serve for 4 years) and The Senate (80 senators, every 2 years one third of The Senate is renewed). The present President is Miloš Zeman. The president is elected every 5 years. The president represents the country abroad, he is the commander in chief of the army, has right to veto or refuse a bill, appoint ambassadors, judges, he can declare amnesty and appoints all the members of the government. The leader of the winning party usually becomes the prime minister. The government is composed of the prime minister, the vice prime minister and the ministers. We have many political parties like Civic Democratic Party, Top 09, Public affairs and so on.
Landscape and spots of beauty.
The Czech Republic has a varied landscape. Around the borders you can find Mountains ranges. The highest bohemia´s peak is Sněžka in the north. The Eagle Mountains spread the north of Bohemia. The ore Mountains can be found in the west, The Šumava Mountains lie in the south, The Jizerské Hory Mountains and The Beskydy Mountains are found in the north of Moravia, The White Carpathian mountains spread in the east These mountain ranges form a natural border of the northern, western, southern, and eastern parts of the Czech republic.
The Bohemian-Moravian highland separating Bohemia from Moravia.
If you want to see caves you can go to The Moravian Karst in Moravia, with an abyss called Macocha. And an underground river called the Punkva River. The most famous hill is called Říp.
The biggest river in the Czech Republic is Elbe flowing into the North Sea. The longest river is its tributary called Vltava River. We have several dams like Lipno or Slapy, the have been built on some of these rivers, forming large reservoirs of fresh water.
There are only a few natural lakes in the CR, the biggest lakes are Černé Lake and Čertovo Lake in Šumava mountains.
There are a lot of mineral springs, around many of which spas have developed like Karlova Vary spa or Františkovy lázně spa.
ClimateThe Czech Republic has a continental temperature with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy winters usually with snow climate.
The Czech Republic is rich in raw materials. The most significant is coal. Black coal is mined in Ostrava, but also in the area of Kladno and elsewhere. Lignite is mined mainly in the Sokolov basin. There are also minor deposits of iron ore, uranium and oil and so on. The rich deposits of kaolin and clay are important for the ceramics and glass industries as well.
The Czech Republic is traditionally and industrial country. The main Czech products are Škoda cars, cut glass, Fernet stock, Pilsen beer and others.
The agriculure of the country is developed the main crops are hops grown in Zatec, Louny, sugar beet, wheat, barley, maize, mustard, sunflower grown in the valleys of big rivers especially in Moravia, beans, clover, poppy seed carp breeding and pig breeding.
Some places associated with history
The territory of Znojmo and Uhersky Brod was settled by the Slavs in the 5th century. In the 9th century the first state formation was founded here called Great Moravian Empire.
In the middle Ages Prague and Tabor are connected with the hussite movement led by Master John Huss, who was burn to dead in 1415.
Slavkov is connected with Napoleon wars in the 18th century. The famous battle took place here.
The old castles and ruins, such as Karlštejn and Lednice and many others are also full of history
The dominant of Prague is The Prague Castle standing on green hill above The Vltava River. There are a lot of historical buildings belonging to it such as Vitus Cathedral with St. Wenceslas Chapel decorated with semi- precious stone. Elections of presidents are held in Vladislav Hall and foreign visitors are accepted in the beautifully decorated Spanish Hall. Shops with souvenirs are found in Golden Lane. Daliborka tower is connected with many legends.
The main tourist attraction in Old Town Square is The old Town Hall, with the famous astronomical clock. Tycho de Brahe was Buries in The Týn Chapel.
Master John Hus preached not far from here in Bethlehem Chapel.
If you want to see the Old-New Synagogue you have to visit another district of Prague, this one is called The Jewish Town.
The most famous bridge in Prague is called Charles Bridge built in the 14th century. It´s about 500 meter long.
St. Nicolas Church, built in Baroque style is found in other district of Prague called The Lesser Town.
The heart of the New Town is the horologe.
If you want to see a very interesting mirror maze you must go to Mirror maize on the hill called Petrin. Petrin is a copy of the Eiffel tower.
The most famous theatre in Prague is The National Theatre, and the most famous museum is The National museum.
The Vyšehrad was once the seat of Czech princes.
Prague is the seat of one of the oldest universities –The Charles university– still in use, initiated by Charles IV in the 14th century.
On the outskirts of Prague you can find The Prague Zoo in Troja and the Zbraslav Monastery. New architecture is The Dancing House.