The Czech republic – maturitní otázka

 

Otázka: The Czech republic

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Ancule

 

 

 

 

• 79 000 sq. km, 11 000 inhabitants

• in the middle of Europe

• borders on Germany (longest frontier – in the west), Poland (in the north), Austria (in the south) and Slovakia (in the east)

• capital – Prague

 

Relief

• the Giant Mountains – the highest mountain is Snow Mountain (1 603); partly Czech, partly Polish

• the Eagle Mountains, the Ore Mountains, the Bohemian Forest, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Jeseník Mountains, the Moravian-Silesian Besides, Šumava

• the longest rivers are the rivers Vltava, Elbe, Morava

 

History

• the old legend says that Primal Father Czech came with his people to Bohemia, climbed up the hill Říp, observed the country and gave order to his people to settle in this fertile country

• first Slavs came to Bohemia in the 5th century

• in the 9th century they invited the first state formation – the Great Moravian Empire

• in the 10th century A new state had developed = Czech state

• the best and the most important ruler was King Charles IV (14th century) – he developed the economy, founded Prague University and built Prague New Town

• the crisis of medieval Europe culminated here in the Hussite movement – reformation teaching of Master Jan Hus who was burnt to death in 1415

• 1620 – Battle of the White Mountain – the country was Germanised and many non-Catholic artist and scientic had to leave the country (e.g. Jan Amos Comenius)

• the 19th century was Age of Reason – there were period of Enlightenment, Czech language and literature became important

• at the end of the World War I the Austrian-Hungarian Empire fell and in October 1918 the independent Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed with T.G.Masaryk as the first president

• 1939 – Hitler occupied whole Czechoslovak Republic

• 1945 – Czechoslovak Republic became a satellite of the USSR – the socialistic era

• 1989 – the people throw out the communists, science then the republic is freedom and democratic

• 1992/1993 – Czech and Slovak republic was divided into independent countries

 

Industry

• electrical energy from coal and uranium

• most important part of our economy is engineering (machines, motorcars, locomotives, tractors, trams, …)

• metallurgical and chemical industries are important, too

• textile and glass industries have a long tradition

• tourism

 

Agriculture

• wheat, maize, sugar-beet, grapes, hops and fruit

• cattle and pig breeding

• Fish breeding (especially carp-breeding) has a long tradition

 

Population

• the major nationalities living here are Czech and Moravian

• minority groups – the Silesians, the Gypsies, The Poles, the Germans, the Ukrainians and the Russians

 

Cities

• Ostrava – coal mining, city was known as a steel heart of the socialist republic, miners from all country;

today a lot of mines are closed and miners are unemployed

– Ostrava’s way of life and local dialect have been influenced by the mixture of nationalities – Czechs,

Slovaks, Poles, Germans and Gypsies

– two universities – Ostrava’s University and Technical University Báňská

– four theatres: Moravia–Silesia National Theatre – four division: drama, opera, musical comedy, ballet

– Theatre of Marionettes- does shows around Europe

– Chamber Theatre Arenas

– Petr Bezruč Theatre – produce unique plays for young audiences

– the centre of Ostrava – banks, restaurants, stores, shops, …

• Mariánské Lázně – the youngest spa, founded in 19th century

– clean air, the peace of the environment, the calming silence of the woods

– Marienbad’s rich mineral springs – they cure the ailments of the kidneys, urinary tracts, metabolic

disorders, motor disorders, diseases of nervous system, respiratory system, …

– cultural life – the Chopin Music Festival, the International Cultural Festival, performances of

folklore groups and brass music, colonnade concerts, chamber orchestras

– BEČOV NAD TEPLOU – castle, founded in the 13th century

– PREMONSTRATENSIAN MONASTERY TEPLÁ – was founded in 11th century

– still belongs to the Premonstratensians

– monastery’s library contains almost 1 000 000 books

– CASTLE KYNŽVART – was built for Prince Metternich in 18/19 century

– in Vienna classicism and empire style

• Český Krumlov

Český Krumlov as a unique urban complex was first included in 1992 on the UNESCO list of worldwide cultural heritage. The town has 15 000 inhabitants. It is one of the most heavily visited towns in CZ. The visitors like Queen Margareta II. Of Denmark or Prince Charles had visited it. Český Krumlov has a long history. It was the seat of the noble Vítek family in the 13th century etc. There are over 300 historical buildings there. In 1989 it was opened up to abroad interest. The Český Krumlov castle and Chateau is the second largest in the CZ. Very famous is the Revolving auditorium from 17th century (otáčecí jeviště). The European Information centre has been set up here. It has direct contact with the highest European organs as the UN, NATO… Every year in December the town goes back many centuries to pay homage (vzdát poctu) to its history. They dress mediaeval costumes. In August International Festival of Classical music takes place in Český Krumlov.

 

 

Central and Northern Moravia

• the history of this region is documented by a number of memorable castles, strongholds and historical areas

• the traditional way of life in this region is different than in the other parts of the country – there is a rich treasure of the unique folk architecture, folk customs and traditions

Jeseníky

• the mountain range of Jeseníky is a well-known recreational area

• popular health resorts, water spas, natural bathing pools and lakes (Karlova Studánka, Lázně Lipová, …)

Opava region

• in the centre of this region is an ancient town Opava with many historical buildings

• many ruins of the ancient castles and strongholds with the gardens and parks around it (Šilheřovice, Raduň, Kravaře, …)

Central Moravia

• Hana – the region of fertile lowland

• Olomouc – the metropolis of Central Moravia, the royal seat of the Premyslide dukes, Archbishop’s Palace

• rich and powerful towns were rising in this area (Kroměříž, Přerov, Prostějov, …)

Moravská brána (Moravian Gate)

• hilly landscape

• the well-known European river Odra has it spring in the Oderské vrchy.

• historical towns, castles, sights with folk architecture (Frenštát pod Radhoštěm, Štramberk, Studénka, …)

Beskydy

• Moravian-Silesian (Moravskoslezské) Beskydy is the largest Moravian mountain range in this region

• tourist and sport centre, towns in the mountain valleys and foothills (Hukvaldy, Hrčava, Hnojník, …)

• the symbol of Beskydy – a stone pagan god of Radegast

Valašsko region (Wallachia)

• named after Valachs who settled on this region

• specific character in folk architecture and folklore (Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Vsetín, Valašské Meziříčí, …)

Chřiby, Hostýnské a Vizovické vrchy

• countless wine cellars, distinctive ethnographic festivals

• ancient royal towns with castles (Buchlov, Vizovice, Zlín, Luhačovice …)

Šumava – the Bohemian Forest

• mountains, deep forests, unique moors with the springs of the river Vltava

• ancient buildings, old towns with historical centres, castles and strongholds

Chebsko (Cheb region)

• valley reservoirs with camps around it, beaches and swimming areas

• popular spas (Mariánské Lázně, Františkovy lázně)

• Cheb – old city fortification, museum, gallery, municipal monuments reserve

Tachovsko (Tachov region)

• deep forest along the border

• castle Přidma dominated the region

• Tachov – ancient town, museum, gallery, municipal monuments zone

Domažlicko (Domažlice region)

• area of folk traditions, traditional architecture and customs

• Domažlice – Chodenland-Museum, Chodsko region museum, glassworks museum, municipal monuments reserve

• Klatovsko (Klatovy region)

• the Šumava Regional Preserve and National Park begins there

• mountain plateaus, mountain valleys, lakes

• Klatovy – catacombs, glassworks museum, municipal monuments zone

Prachaticko (Prachatice region)

• National Park

• the extensive plateaus, moors, mountain streams and torrents, the Boubín primeval forest – untouched by civilisation

• Prachatice – ancient town, glassworks museum, municipal monuments reserve

Českokrumlovsko (Český Krumlov region)

• the Šumava National Park

• the Lipenská reservoir

• Český Krumlov – municipal monuments reserve (UNESCO), International Cultural Centre of Egon Schiele, natural theatre with revolving auditorium, historical festivals, museum, gallery

Šumava National Park

• area about 690 sq. km.

• peaceful areas with unique flora and fauna

• known as „the Green Roof of Europe“ or „the Green Lungs of Europe“

North eastern Bohemia

In the northeast the Czech basin is framed by the belt of mountains at the border which has formed a natural boundary between Bohemia and Poland. The mountains in this region offer to cyclists hundreds of kilometres of mountain paths.

The territory of Jizerské Mountains contains a total of 25 nature preserves. The highest mountain is Smrk (1124 m). They are the most visited mountains in CZ. This region is one of the most beautiful regions for cycling in Bohemia. The plateau area is interwoven with a web of mountain roads along which you can ride as you wish without any great effort. The well-known dominating features of the land include the Ještěd peak with its hotel and rotating hyperboloid – shaped television-broadcasting tower. Liberec is famous for its big Zoo and botanical garden and timber – framed houses. Jablonec n. N. is famous for jewellery and glass

The Krkonoše Mountains are the highest mountain range in CZ. The highest peak is Sněžka. The Krkonoše natural park was established here in 1963. In zone 1 of the park hiking and sporting activity is restricted and bicycle riding is permitted at all. They are divided by the river Labe into two parts. There are lots of paths, which are very suitable for mountain biking. From the highest peaks visitors can enjoy the magnificent panoramic views. Visitors are also attracted by picturesque countryside and characteristic settlements of the Semilsko region. The eastern section of Krkonoše Mountains is dominated by Sněžka mountain. The cycling trails begin in the foothills and rise high up the hill sides and lead along the surrounding ridges. A lot of fairytales associated with Krkonoše. The guardian of Krkonoše is also very famous. He is called Krakonoš and he is said to repay good with good and to justly punish the evil.

The Český Ráj is a region of sandstone rock formations and labyrinths. The romantic ruins of castles and magnificent chateaus complete the colourful mosaic of the region. Dominating feature of the land are the ruins of the gothic Trosky castle. The entire region was declared to be a protected scenic preserve in the year 1954. There are a total of three instructive trails in this region. The rivers Jizera and Kamenice have cut deep walleyes in the rock. Among the rock formations there is also a group of several ponds and the picturesque valley of Plakátek extends out before the Kost castle.

The Orlické Mountain range boasts a harmonious and as well balanced landscape as well. In the year 1969 it was declared to be a protected territorial preserve. The highest peak is Velká Deštná (1150 m). The cycling trails lead through all of the most interesting areas. Special attention is deserved by the mountain trail named after famous writer A. Jirásek. And another item of interest is Bunkrovka cycling trail. A trail that winds around unique fortifications dating back to the time of the WW II.






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