The Food – maturitní otázka

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angličtina

 

Otázka: The Food

Jazyk: Angličtina pro hotelové školy

Přidal(a): Kristýna Koutníková

 

 

The Food triangle

The Food Pyramid / Triangle shows which food groups are important for healthy nutrition. To the healthy life style belong also exercise and sport. Important is to drink sufficient liquids 1, 5 – 2 litres a day. You need more whole-grain products, vegetables and fruits, low-fat diary products, fish and lean meat, and less red meat, eggs and oil. Sweets, alcohol and sausages are considered to be unhealthy. A balanced and varied diet is one that includes all the food groups with all important nutrients, vitamins and minerals.

 

Raw food

Some food we can eat raw. First of all vegetables and fruit, oysters. We have to cook other food stuff. Some of the food must be put in water, milk or water with lemon juice be before it is cooked (peeled apples and potatoes, kidney, liver). Some food must be blanched e.g. cabbage, potatoes, peppers. We have to peel, dice = cut into cubes, slice, grate, mince, chop, julienne some food before cooking. Meat can be boned and marinated.

 

Food and cooking methods

Following cooking methods can be used for preparing dishes: food can be grilled, broiled, boiled, roasted, fried, poached, stewed, baked and steamed. Food can be seasoned / flavoured with spices and garnished before serving.

 

Grilling and broiling:

  • When grilling the heat source comes from below and when broiling the heat source is from above. We can grill meat, vegetables, …
  • Boiling: Cooking in a lot of liquid at a tem­perature of about 100° C. We boil food for soups, rice, potatoes, pasta.
  • Roasting: Cooking with browning on the stove or in the oven with or without adding fat, at a temperature of 140°– 200°C .A special form of short roasting is sautéing. We roast meat.
  • Frying: Cooking with browning in hot oil at a temperature of 140° – 190°C. We can fry meat, fish, shellfish, vegetables, potatoes and poultry.
  • Poaching: Cooking in liquid at a temperature under the boiling point (75°– 95° C/ We poach meet, eggs, fish, poultry.
  • Stewing / Braising: Meat is often browned before liquid is added. Meats and vegetables can be cooked or steamed in their own juice.
  • Baking is cooking food in an oven using dry heat. We bake cakes, breads, and pastries.
  • Steaming: Cooking at a temperature of about 100°C in steam, with the food and cooking liquid completely sepa­rated. We steam vegetables, fish, potatoes.

 

Wholesome and unhealthy food

We should eat as much fruit and vegetables as possible, preferably fresh and half an hour before meals. We have summer fruit – the berries (gooseberry, bilberry / blueberry, cranberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry and currants), kernel fruit (pear, apple, peach, apricot, nut, plum, cherry and sour cherry), tropical fruits (pineapple, banana, lemon, grapefruit, kiwi, coconut, almond, tangerine, melon, olive, orange).

We have bulb vegetables (onion, garlic, chive, leek), vegetables with stalks ( broccoli, kohlrabi, cole, brussels sprout, cauliflower, cabbage, sauerkraut), root vegetables (celery root, horse radish, carrot, parsley root, turnip, radish, beetroot), green vegetables (lettuce, spinach), pod vegetables (lentils, green beans, green peas, soya), fruit vegetables (aubergine, cucumber, pepper, gherkin, tomato, pumpkin) and other vegetables (e.g. asparagus or rhubarb).

Healthy is the fish: Fresh water fish (carp, trout, eel, pike, perch, salmon), salt water fish (halibut t/ plaice, herring, mackerel, tuna, sardine, cod, sole, turbot), shellfish (shrimps / prawns / scampi, lobster,crab, oysters, mussels, scallops)

Milk products are considered to be healthy: soft cheeses, sheep cheeses, blue cheeses (camembert, ermine – hermelín, roquefort), processed cheeses (with ham, garlic-flavoured, paprika cheese…) hard cheeses (Cheddar, Edam, Emmenthal, Moravian loaf, parmesan..), curd (cottage cheese, cream cheese, hard cheese / curd, Balkan cheese, Olomouc cheeses), yogurts.

Of oils olive oil is the healthiest one.

Healthy are the whole grain flour products, natural rice…

Meat, poultry and game are important items on our menus. We have lamb and mutton, beef and veal, pork.  We should avoid eating fat meat. From poultry chicken and turkey have little natural fat. Duck and goose are usually very fat. From the game we eat boar, deer, hare, rabbit, partridge and pheasant.

We should avoid the smoked meats and sausages and the “white killers” – white sugar, white flour and salt. They can be easily replaced by brown sugar, whole grain flour and sea salt.

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