Otázka: The Important Stages Of Child’s Development
There are six stages of child’s development: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool age, primary school age, secondary school age which includes puberty and adolescence.
The infancy lasts from the birth to one year of life. The baby becomes three times heavier and grows up about 20 centimetres. In six month of life the milk teeth start to grow. Between the 2nd and the 4th month there is a risk of Sudden infant death syndrome. Approximately from a half a year of age baby can roll over, crawl, sit up unassisted, pick up and put down small things and walk with support of furniture or parents. About one year of age babies took their first unassisted steps. By 12 month old an infant may also be able to say simple words like “mama”.
The toddlerhood is the period of the second and the third year of life. The baby becomes about 4 kilos heavier and grows up about 17 or 18 centimetres. The toddler can walk unassisted and climb stairs. Before the 2nd year of age the toddler is able to run and jump. The baby builds block towers. Two years old baby can drink and eat unassisted, it is able to put on socks and trousers and unbutton buttons.
The preschool age lasts from 3 to 5 years of age. Children usually go to nurseries. By age 4 most children can move well, hopping and standing on one foot, kicking a soft ball and throwing a ball overhand. By 5 years old, children may even climb on play equipment, somersault and skip. The fine motor and cognitive skills allow to child to draw geometric shapes, patterns and human figures and write some letters of the alphabet. Emotionally, the preschooler is building greater self-regulation abilities and has the ability to verbally express what she is feeling instead of only using gestures or physical aggression. Socially, preschoolers are entering a new world where they are making their first true friends based on similar interests.
The primary school age lasts from 6 to 11 or 12 years of age. The body growth is getting slower. As the name of stage says, children start to go to primary school. They learn to read, write and do mathematical operations. They improve their attention.
The secondary school age lasts from 11 or 12 to 15 years of age. The important period of the secondary school age is puberty. The individual reaches the sexual maturity. The secondary sexual characteristics are starting to show. Boys mutate. Children start to realize their personality. They rebel against authorities and they often suddenly change their mood. It’s the time of the first loves.
The adolescence lasts from 15 to 20 or 22 years of age. The physical development is finished. The individuals start to become independent and they are finding their place in the life. The socialization is developing. Very common are revaluation and disparagement.