Otázka: The Republic of Ireland
Přidal(a): Gabriela H
THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
Area: 70 000 km2
Population: 4.8 Million
Patron: St Patrick
Head: president Michael D. Higgins
Language: English, Gaelic
Form: parliamentary republic
Lies in the Atlantic Ocean to the west of Great Britain from which it is separated by the Irish Sea, St George’s Channel (between Ireland and Wales) and North Channel (between Ireland and Scotland).
The greater part is occupied by the Central Plain with hills round the coast.
The River Shannon – the most important river, the longest one in the British Isles
Killarney – famous for its lakes and mountains
Typically insular [ostrovní], mild, with a lot of rain, similar to that of Great Britain. Ireland is even more exposed to the influence of the Atlantic Ocean (warmer winters, cooler summers, more rain, less sunshine than in Great Britain)
Due to frequent rains most of the island is beautifully green.
Over 4.8 million inhabitants
The republic is bilingual, official languages are Gaelic (the Irish language, used only on the west coast where it is main language of about 50,000 people) and English.
The capital – Dublin (more than half a million people)
Cork – the 2nd largest city (120,000 inhabitants)
Limerick – one of the most beautiful cities in Ireland, situated on the River Shannon
– famous for its cathedral and castle
Religion: still plays an important role in Irish life.
More than 90% of the population are Catholics, most of the rest are Protestants.
– there are large reserves of peat (the nation’s greatest source of energy, used as a fuel for home fires for centuries, now provides about 20% of electricity).
– There is very little timber because forest covers only 2 to 3% of the surface.
Agriculture – Ireland has for a long time been an agricultural country and in spite of rapid
industrial development in recent years, agriculture remains the basis of the country’s economy
– an exporter of agricultural products
– nearly 50% of all land is used as pasture
– the main crops – barley, potatoes, turnips, sugar beet
Tourism has now become an important source of money (millions of tourists visit Ireland every year).
Industry – connected with agriculture (food processing, brewing, distilling)
– engineering, vehicle assembling, light manufacturing, electronics, mining
– main exports: livestock, meat, other food and drink
– imports: petroleum products, chemicals, machinery
THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
The President – the head of the state, elected by direct vote of the people for 7 years
– advised by the Council of State – composed of the Prime Minister, former presidents and Prime Ministers, some other high state officials, people nominated by the President
The National Parliament – 2 Houses:
- The House of Representatives
- The Senate – limited powers
The executive – headed by the PM, follows the British pattern
About 300 B. C. – Celtic tribes came
About 432 – St Patrick converted the Irish to Christianity
About 800 – the Vikings were coming
1169 – the next invaders were Anglo-Normans and Ireland became “the 1st English colony”
Between 1500 and 1922 Irish history was the history of the resistance to British rule and oppression
1919–21 – the Anglo-Irish War
1922 – the Irish Free State established