Otázka: United Kingdom
The official name is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The British Isles are in the north-west of Europe. They consist of a large island Great Britain, a smaller island Ireland and lots of very small islands, for example the Shetlands, the Orkneys and the Hebrides.
The population of the UK is about 56 millions. The south and central part of Great Britain is more densely populated than the north. England is separated from France, to the south, by an area of sea called the English Channel (or La Manche in French). On clear days it is possible to see the French coat from some parts of the English coast. The Channel Tunnel built below the English Channel opened in 1994.
England has a mild climate without extreme heat or cold. Most of the country gets at least a few days of snow in winter, but temperatures usually stay above freezing. In the summer temperature is usually below 25 degrees. In UK is lot of rain, particularly in the west and it is very windy and foggy.
The national flag of Britain is the Union Jack. It is a composition of the three flags of England, Scotland and Ireland and was officially adopted in 1801 The origin of the name is not certain but is probably because Jack was the nickname of King James I who united the crowns of England and Scotland in 1603. National anthem is “GOD SAVE THE QUEEN”
Britain is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen as the head of state. The Queen is Elizabeth II. She lives in London at Buckingham Palace. The Constitution of UK is unwritten, it based on custom tradition and common law. The main body is Parliament. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. British parliamentary system is one of the oldest in the world. The government is formed by the party which has the majority in Parliament and the Queen appoints its leader as the Prime Minister. The present Prime Minister since 2010 has been David Cameron. He lives in Downing Street. The main political parties are the Labour Party, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party.
UK is divided into four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Capital city of England is London. Patron is St. George and symbol is red rose. In England are old university towns Oxford and Cambridge. William Shakespeare comes from England. He was born at Stafford-upon-Avon. Liverpool is birthplace of Beatles. And there are more interesting places like Stonehenge, Birmingham, Liverpool and others..
Wales is full of mystery and beauty. The capital city is Cardiff, patron is Saint David and symbols are a leek and a daffodil. Wales is sometimes called the land of castles.
Scotland is historically and culturally separate from England. It is the land of many special traditions – playing the pipes, wearing kilts and Scots whiskey. The capital city is Edinburgh, patron is St. Andrew ant symbol is a thistle.
Ireland is divided into two countries: The republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland which is part of UK. The capital city of Northern Ireland is Belfast, patron is St. Patrick and symbol is a piece of shamrock.
British are conservative and like traditions. They are famous for their sense of humour. They are never tired of saying: “I’m sorry, Excuse me.” They like spending their leisure time with the family, pets in their houses. They say: “My house my castle.” They have good table manners. The English like to live in family houses. A typical English house has 2 floors. Many houses in the streets look the same.