Otázka: Washington, D.C. and New York
Washington DC the national capital of the USA is situated on the Potomac river about 90 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean. The District of Columbia is the seat of the federal government of the United States. The city’s area was originally taken from the states of Maryland and Virginia. Virginia’s portion south of the Potomac was given back to that state in 1846.
The District of Columbia was established by Act of Congress in 1790. The site for the capitol was chosen by President Washington. The capital was designed by the French engineer Pierre L’Enfant. He was helped by Thomas Jefferson, later the third President of the U.S. John Adams was the second President of the U.S. The city was divided into 4 quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Northeast and Southeast) with the Capitol as the centre.
The city was first used as the seat of Congress in 1800.
The Potomac River is too shallow to allow large cargo – carrying vessels to enter the city, so Washington never developer into a major port.
In Washington there is Federal Government. All of them work in the federally owned buildings which occupy 40 per cent of the city’s land.
In order to be near the Federal centre hundreds of national and international organizations have offices in Washington.
Lobbyists representing special interest groups, lobbyists work to persuade legislators to support laws helpful to their client’s interests.
Washington is served by 3 major airports: Washington National Airport, Dulles International Airport, Baltimore – Washington International Airport.
Washington’s only railroad station is the renovated Union Station.
Bus service includes Greyhound – Trailways for long distances, and city buses known as Metrobus.
There are also taxis available in Washington.
The City’s most prominent landmark is the Capitol building, which stands along the eastern end of the Mall, on Capitol Hill.
The Capitol extends along the north – south axis, The Senate Wing in the north, The House of Representatives Wing in the south. The building is topped by the bronze Statue of Freedom.
The House Chamber, a richly decorated room is dominated by a broad podium faced by the seats of the 435 members of the House.
The Senate Chamber. The 100 Senators are seated in a semi – circle at dark mahogany desks.
The Supreme Court, a white marble building. The Court is appointed for life by the President.
Library of Congress is the largest library in existence, which contains over 90 million items.
Close to the Library of Congress stands Folger Shakespeare Library. The world’s largest collection of Shakespeare’s works.
Very important place is Smithsonian Institution. One of the largest museums and research complexes in the world. There are 14 museums and National Zoo. It is named after James Smithson.
The symbol of the Institution is the red sandstone castle.
There are: The National museum of African Art, The National Air and Space Museum, The National Gallery of Art and National Archives.
Washington monument, the capital’s most conspicuous landmark, the white marble obelisk rises in the middle of the Mall. Eight small windows, two on each side of the pyramidal apex.
Jefferson Memorial: Roman Pantheon on the south shore of the Tidal Basin. The monument is dominated by bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson holding the Declaration of Independence.
Lincoln memorial: This stately memorial was inspirited by Greek architecture.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial is black granite wall engraved with the names of people killed or missing in Vietnam War.
Arlington National Cemetery is located on the other side of Arlington Memorial Bridge.
Close to Arlington Cemetery is the Pentagon, the largest single structure building in the world.
To the north of the Washington monument is the White House, the president’s residence.
Washington is world famous for its parks and green spaces. The most attractive parks are West and East Potomac Parks and Constitution Gardens.
In Washington there are two famous universities Georgetown University and George Washington University.
New York is the largest city in the USA and an industrial port (printing, publishing, clothing). It lies on the east coast at the mouth of the Hudson and East Rivers. New York has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Staten Island (Richmond). It is one of the most important financial, commercial and culture centres in the world.
Giovanni da Verrazano was the first European to enter New York. Later one of the bridges was named after him. Verrazano Narrows Bridge. Other important bridges are Brooklyn Bridge and George Washington Bridge.
New Amsterdam in the south of the island of Manhattan was established by the Dutch and in 1626 the island was bought from the Indians for goods worth only 24 dollars. New Amsterdam’s prosperity was based on the sale of skins and tobacco farming.
As the city grew, it became more cosmopolitan. People can choose their religion and their culture and language were respected.
In 1886 the Statue of Liberty welcomed immigrants as they entered the harbour.
Liberty Island with the Statue of Liberty together with Manhattan skyline are the first sights to attract the visitor’s eyes when approaching New York from the sea. It has become a symbol of both freedom and the United States itself.
It is more than 91 meters high from its pedestal to the torch. The Lady holds book with the inscription. 4th July 1776 is the date of beginning of the independent United States.
At the turn of the 20th century the first skyscrapers began to appear.
New York was primarily a business centre. In 1820 Stock Exchange replaced the open – air money market that had operated on Wall Street since 1792. The Stock Exchange and numerous banks which were established during the 19th and 20th centuries around Wall Street have made this street a synonym for the financial world. The city is home of two of the nation’s major stock markets and many international institutions.
Something about Transport: Ferries had been the main method of transportation to and from Manhattan. There are 4 underwater tunnels.
New York has three major airports. J.F.K. International Airport, Newark International Airport and La Guardia Airport.
The New York subway system has more than 450 stations. Is the largest urban transportation system in the world.
Taxis in New York which are called cabs.
New York was a city of immigrants. The immigrants formed self – sufficient communities such as Chinatown, The Jewish Neighbourhood and The German Neighbourhood in East Village.
There were to be 12 avenues running north to south. There were bisected by 155 streets (now there are more than 200) running east to west.
Manhattan the heart of New York is famous of its skyline and a large number of skyscrapers on a small area.
The most famous building of New York is the Empire State Building. At the corner of 5th avenue and 34th street.
The New York public Library was designed in the Beaux Arts Style and was open in 1911.
The Chrysler Building is the seat of the Chrysler automobile company.
The Grand Central Terminal is considered one of the finest public buildings in the United States.
Just to the south of the Terminal lies Murray Hill one of the most prestigious residential addresses which continues on with Park Avenue.
The United Nations Headquarters is located along the bank of the East River.
The busiest shopping streets are 5th Avenue.
There are many parks, The Central park is the largest park of all New York’s parks.
There are two popular universities: Columbia University and New York University is the largest private university in the United States.
There are many museums and galleries: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Guggenheim Museum, Museum of Modern Art and American Museum of Natural History.
The city also boasts two of the country’s most famous stadiums: Yankee and Shea.
Flushing Meadows Park on Long Island is world known for its tennis championships.
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