Australia and New Zealand – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (6)

 

  Otázka: Australia and New Zealand

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): E.S.

 

 

 

 

AUSTRALIA

Australia is the only country and also a continent, the smallest continent  and 6th largest country. Australia´s highets point is called Mount Kosciusco placed in Australian Alps. The Murray River is the longest permanently flowing river in the country. The capital city is called Canberra.

The flag of Australia is blue and includes the flag of United Kingdom, the Southern Cross Constellation and alarge seven-pointed stars known as  a Commonwealth of Federation Star, which symbolize a federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901.

 

HISTORY

The original inhabitans of Australia were a people called Aborigines. The first european discover of this land was Williwm Jansz, the Dutch navigator, who visited north coast in 1606.

Than the Dutch sea captain Abel Tasman landed on the island which was named after him, Tasmania.

In 1770, James Cook of the British army became the first European to sight and explore Australia´s east coast. Cook claimed the region for Great Britain and name it New South Wales. The first white settlement in Australia was made up of prisoners sent there from overcrowded British prisons. Accompanied by british soldiers and their families they landed at Botany Bay (east coast). The nearby settlement was the beggining of the city of Sydney.

After discovery of gold in the southwest of the land, the population of Australia increase (1850-1860). The most of people didn ´t find enough gold to pay their passage home so they stayed.

After various colonies Australia decided to unit into single nation. On January 1 in 1901 the sixth colonies became states of a new nation, the Commonwealth of Australia.

 

INHABITANS

Historians thinks that native inhabitans of Australia, called Aborigines, may arrived from Southeast Asia at least 50 000 years ago. After landing the continent by Europeans, Australia has been realy slowly to acknowledge the rights of the continent´s firts people. The 1901 Constitution mention them only to say they were not be counted as citiziens.

The country used to have a “white policy” which carefully selected arriving emigrants by colour of their skin.

Today there are about 390 000 Aborigines living in Australia. They make up less than 2% of the country´s population. Their life expectancy is about 15 years lower than that of the average Australian. Infant mortality is several times higher. Diabetes and ear and eye disseases are much more common. Drink and drug problems are widespread. The large propotion of children drop out of school. Housing standarts are often poor.

 

ENGLISH FROM DOWN UNDER, AUSTRALIAN SLANG

Many slang words have been borrowed from the original Australian inhabitants and are still in common use today. For example: “You give me the willies!” means “You are really annoying me!”

 

The first white settlers had a huge influence on how is the Australian language formed. Many of these settlers were English and Irish criminals who were sent from the overflowing prisons of England. They developedtheir own special rhyming language so that the autorities would not understand them. It consist many phrases such as for example “Can you pass me the thing-a-me-gig?” – it means you can´t remember what something is called.

Many “aussie” words and phrases date back from “diggers” from the gold rush era. Diggers were Australian soldiers of the First and Second World War who brought still more new slang expressions.

Bloody = damn

“I could really do with a kitchen sink!”=drink

One of the main forms of slang for Aussies today is abbreviating words. Aussies have a strong impulse to abbreviate like: barbie = barbeque.

 

NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand is insular country lying in the South Pacific, it is composed of 2 main islands: The North Island and The South Island. Excepting these two islands we can find here also Steward Island and Chatham Islands. The capital city is named Wellington.

 

INHABITANS

NZ was settled later than Australia, at the beggining of 19 century. The population is mostly of British origin. The native inhabitans are called Maoris and they are Polynesians. NZ is a rather scarcely settled country. Almost 80% of population live on the North Island which is actually the smallest of the two.

 

AGRICULTURE

The most developed field of national economy is agriculture. The fertile soil is there so fruit and vegetables are grown in NZ. Other branch of agricuture is make up by sheep-raising, flocks of sheep can be seen virtually everywhere. Studs giving fine wool, furs and high-quality meat are most popular.

 

ATTRACTIONS

  • the gaysers and thermal areas
  • active volcanos and extinct and dormant volcanos
  • Maoriort – houses and temples decorated with wooden carvings
  • Southern Alps
  • The Fjordland National Park

 

NORTH ISLAND

Wellington and Auckland on North Island are the chief ports.

Rotua is a place visited by almost every tourist. It is a famous thermal area including geysers which spout boiling watter.

Another Atraction of NI is Burried Village, which is burried under the ashes, lava and mus of the Mt Tarawera volcano. It is a dormant volcano so its activity has not ended yet.

 

SOUTH ISLAND

Christchurch is main city of South Island and it is built in British style.

South Island has the picturesque Southern Alps. Mount Cook, the highest point of the New Zealand lies there. We can find here also snow-toppe mountains, smoking volcanos, deep fjords, boiling geysers, lekes, caves and golden beaches. It is paradise for many hikers.

The Southern Lakes lying in the embrace of snow-covered peaks – there are many famous skiing centers.

 

The Fjorden National Park

WAITANGI DAY

New Zealanders celebrate Waitangi Day on 6 February. On that day in 1840 the British Government signed a treaty with chiefs of Maori people. In exchange for the  Queen´s protection the Maoris agreed to give the Queen authority over New Zealand.In 20th century it was declared as “New Zealand Day” and it became a public holiday, although everyone still calls it “Waitangi Day”.

 

KIWIS

New Zealanders are sometimes reffered to as Kiwis. Kiwi, the frut is commercially grown in NZ but there is also kiwi, the flightless bird that can only be found on NZ. His name is a Maori word reffering to the high-pitched call of the male. Kiwis sleep by day in holes and look for food – worms, insects and berries – by night.

 

SIR EDMUND HILLARY

Sir Edmund Hillary  born in Auckland in NZ was the first who reached the summit of the highets mountain in the World, Mt Everest.






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