Books – history of printed material

angličtina

 

Otázka: Books – history of printed material

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Eliška

 

 

When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, stone, clay, tree bark (kůra), and metal sheets were used for writing. A tablet (deska) was the first robust writing medium. Clay tablets were used for writing in cuneiform (klínové písmo). Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus sheets glued together formed a scroll (závitek).

Later, wax tablets became the common writing materiál in schools and in accounting and for taking notes. They were reusable: the wax could be melted and reformed into a blank slate. During the Middle Ages the format of a codex (předchůdce knihy) became more economical, as both sides of the writing materiál could be used. It was portable and easy to hide. A book was much easier to read, the reader could find a page that he wanted, and could flip through (listovat) the pages.

In the 15 century the invention of the printing press made book less expensive to produce and more widely available.

The methods used for the printing and binding of books remained basiccaly unchanged from teh 15th century to the early 20th century. Today, the majority (převážná většina) of books are printed by offset lithography. Developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing using a toner rather than ink.

Much new information is made available online through a digital library, on CD-ROM, or in the form of e-books.

Paperback books have cheaper, flexible covers which tend to be less durable. Spiral-bound (kroužková vazba) books are bound by spirals made of metal or plastic.

Johannes Gutenberg was the first to invent a machine for printing, the printing press, in the 15th century.

Paper has been invented i China in the 8th century.




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