Brief history of UK

angličtina

 

Otázka: Brief history of UK

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Vladislav Sedláček

 

 

The early history

  • the first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europe (Iberians)
  • they arrived to the south of England in 5000 B.C and introduced farming, pottery
  • Stonehenge was built by these early inhabitants

 

Celtic tribes

  • in 750 B.C.; 200 different tribes, one of them was
    called Britons and the whole island was named Britannia

 

Roman tribes

  • Conquered under Emperor Claudius in 43 A.D.
  • he pushed a number of Celts to the north and west, Celts didn´t like it and retaliated
  • Emperor Hadrian wanted to stop it -> Hadrian’s wall between England and Scotland
  • Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years (until the 5th century)

 

Three Germanic tribes

  • Angles, Saxons, Jutes came from Germany, Denmark and Netherlands (5th century)
  • they conquered the Celts and drove them into what is now Wales and Scotland

 

Alfred the Great

  • Saxon king, intelligent and well educated, translated books from Latin to Old English
  • Settled peace with Vikings who invaded England in the 9th century

 

Battle of Hastings (1066)

  • this battle changed the future of England, when William Duke of Normandy and his soldiers defeated the Saxon King Harold, who was killed
  • he became King of England -> William the Conqueror
  • We can see a linguistic influence from the French language in this period (beef, royal)

 

Magna Charta (1215)

  • King John signed the document Magna Charta -> restricted power of the ruler¨
  • It is considered to be the foundation of human rights in Great Britain

 

The Hundred Year´s War 1337–1453

  • Conflict with France, Edward III wanted to be the King of France but the French King wouldn´t agree to this -> the war ended in England´s defeat

 

The War of Roses 1455–1485

  • Dynastic struggle for Crown between the House of York and the House of Lancaster
  • two powerful branches of the Royal Family for 30 years carried out a civil war in order to secure the throne for themselves
  • peace was made when Henry VII of Lancaster
    married Elizabeth of York

 

The Tudor Period 1485–1603

  • Turning point in English history
  • one of the best remembered kings are Henry VIII and his daughter Elizabeth I
  • England in Tudor period became one of the leading world powers
  • several factors that contributed to the rise of England as a world power
    • the great geographical discoveries /America, India/
    • trading expeditions were encouraged by Elizabeth I
  • Henry VIII had 6 wives, became the Head of the English Church instead of Pope,
    • Catherine Aragon(divorced),Anne Boleyn(beheaded), Jane Saymoor (died)
    • Anne from Cleves(divorced),Catherine Howard (beheaded)
      Catherine Parr – survived
  • Anne Boleyn´s daughter Elizabeth was an outstanding. diplomatic Queen of England
    • Many European kings longed to control England but she remained unmarried, she kept them hoping and so managed to keep peace -> “Virgin Queen”
  • the Elizabethan age produced the world´s greatest playwright William Shakespeare

 

The Civil War 1640–1649

  • Period of conflict between the King (Royalists) and Parliament (Parliamentarians)
  • England was divided: Supporters of Charles I (absolute monarchy)
    Supporters of Parliament (constitutional monarchy)
  • -> Civil war – abolition of the monarchy and Cromwell´s military dictatorship
  • England-> republic under The Commonwealth with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector
  • this period ended in the Glorious Revolution

 

Industrial Revolution 1760–1850

  • Britain became the first industrial power in the world -> “workshop of the world”
  • Struggles between France and Britain for world domination started with Napoleon

 

The Victorian Era 1837–1901

  • After Queen Victoria -> Britain the strongest power in the world
  • Crowned when 18, one of the best rulers, ruled over 60 years – long peace
  • Britain became the greatest industrial, financial, commercial, colonial power
  • Victoria was the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace

 

World War I.

  • Cause of the war = assassination of Ferdinand d’Este in Sarajevo
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary Turkey and Bulgaria formed the Central powers
  • France, Britain and Russia formed the Allies, joined by Italy, Romania, USA
  • 1918 – German army defeated; 1919 – Treaty of Versailles was signed

 

World War II.

  • 1938 – Munich pact: Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Eduard Daladier -> it allowed Germany to have the Sudetenland (“Saved world peace”)
  • 1939 – Germany invaded Poland -> Britain and France declared war on Germany
  • Battle of Britain: a lot of Britain towns were destroyed by bombs
  • Hitler had to give up the idea of invading Britain
  • 1945 – Germany defeated, Japan capitulated after atomic bombs





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