British History – maturitní otázka (2)



Otázka: British History

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Ondra



Early 20th century

  • 1901-queen Victoria died, Edward VII ascended the throne
  • social movements flourished, attempts to change the society (i.e.Fabiaan Society)
  • free school meals, pensions for elderly, national insurance for the poor, etc.


Political Movements

  • great strikes, strong labour unions, the Labour Party was created
  • 1912-1922 – the Irish Revolution – the Irish republicans wanted to gain independence
  • 1916 – Easter Rebellion – an armed uprising in Dublin was brutally suppressed by the British
  • 1918 – Ireland declared Irish Free State
  • the Irish Republican Army was created
  • women used civil disobedience to gain suffrage
  • all of these calmed down when WWI began


World War I

  • the scramble for colonial possessions led to conflicts among the European powers
  • Triple Entente v. Triple Alliance
  • 1914 – a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke Francis Ferdinand
  • Britain entered the war after German troops marched through Belgium to attack France
  • Lloyd George – minister of war and then prime minister – expanded the use of machine guns and tanks
  • food was rationed, a military draft was introduced (men aged 18 to 41)
  • trench warfare along the border between France and Germany
  • 1916 – Battle of Somme, 1917 – Battle of Ypres
  • 1919 – Treaty of Versailles – punishment for Germany: reparation payments, limitations on army, loss of colonies


Post-war Situation

  • high unemployment (almost ¼ of the working force was unemployed)
  • 1929 – world-wide depression began
  • by 1935 most sectors of the economy were recovering
  • Britain’s vast empire became costly and hard to maintain
  • 1931 – the colonies of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa became independent countries and formed the Commonwealth
  • countries – a loose confederation with historic ties to Britain


World War II

  • 1938 – Germany annexed Austria, seized the western half of Czechoslovakia and then in 1939 occupied the rest and invaded Poland
  • Britain and France declared war on Germany
  • Allied powers (UK, USSR, USA) v. Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)
  • American loans allowed Britain to import food and war materials
  • 1940-Battle of Britain (Royale Air force v. Luftwaffe)
  • 1941- Japanese conquered Singapore
  • 1942- Started operations on German territory (Operation Telemark, operation Anthropoid)
  • 1942-Battle of El Alamein (Montgomery defeated Rommel)
  • 1943-Sicily Invasion, and Italy campaign
  • 1943 – the Royal Air Force began bombardment of Germany
  • 1944 – D-Day invasion – Allied troops landed in France – Germany was pushed back
  • 1944- Operation Market Garden (British suffered heavy losses)
  • May 1945 – the war ended


Situation after WWII

  • continuation of rationing
  • program of nationalization began
  • UK took advantage of the Marshall Plan – four-year economic program designed by the US to revitalize the economies


Losing the colonies

  • UK ended presence in India because of the costs of peacekeeping (Hindus x Muslims)
  • 1956 – Egyptian leader seized the Suez Canal
  • 1961 – South Africa left the Commonwealth
  • Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya developed into republics


From the 50’s to the present

  • 1952 – accession of Elizabeth II
  • 1973 – UK became a member of the European Economic Community (pre-EU)
  • 1979 – Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister
  • Thatcher’s government started privatizing industry, relaxing government regulations, etc., it caused interest rates and unemployment reach post-war highs
  • by mid-80’s the interest rates and mortgages were brought down
  • the Conservative party was divided, 1990 – Thatcher resigned
  • 1997 – Tony Blair became prime minister when the revived New Labour won the election
  • Blair made the Bank of England independent of government
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