British History – maturitní otázka



Otázka: British History

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Dasha


Early history up to 1066


Prehistoric times

  • The first inhabitants arrived from European continent during the stone age about 3000 B. C.
  • Farming, pottery, stone tools (= nástroje)
  • South of England
  • Stonehenge – the largest prehistoric monument (used by Celts)


Around 750 BC (Iron Age)

  • Starting of using iron for tools and weapons
  • During this time arrived the Celtic people


The Celts

  • From the central Europe
  • Divided into tribes (= kmeny)
  • They found iron
  • Their language survives till nowadays in Welsh, Irish and Gaelic
  • One of the tribes was called The BRITONS



  • a queen of the British Celtic tribe
  • led an uprising against the Roman Empire in 60 and 61 A.D
  • destroyed several towns
  • flogged and her daughters raped


The Romans

  • Julius Caesar came with the army in 1st century (55 B.C.) and England became the part of the Roman empire -> but then they returned to France because of some problems
  • They built towns (Londinium, York, Colchester), baths, aqueducts, roads, canals, …
  • Education, reading, counting
  • The Romans built Hadrian’s wall (123 A.D., separating England and Scotland); they wanted to stop Celts from the north
  • Londinium was founded by Romans in 50 A.D.
  • Tribes from Germany had started to attack the empire – the army was needed to defend (= bránit) Rome
  • Roman occupation of Britain – nearly 400 years


The Anglo-Saxons

  • Germanic English (Old English)
    • Middle English = romans language + Anglo-Saxon language
  • 3 tribes, 7 kingdoms
  • Beowulf = 1st English epic poem (in the Old English)
  • Tribes from the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark
  • Made up a new culture
  • Better fighters than Celts -> they pushed them into Scotland, Wales and Ireland
  • In the 6th century – Augustine brought Christianity; before that pagan (= pohané)


The Vikings

  • From the 8th to the 10th century was Britain attacked several times by the Vikings
  • They came from Scandinavia (Norway and Denmark)
  • They occupied the northern part and made York their capital
  • Alfred the Great (the Saxon king) stopped their influence, made peace with the and let them to stay in the north-eastern part of England; the first king of England
  • The king of France gave them land too – it was called Normandy


The Normans

  • French; William the Conqueror – Norman king of England
    • In 1066, he invaded (= napadl) England
  • 1066 – the battle of Hastings – the Normans defeated (= porazili) the Anglo-Saxons -> King Harold was killed, and William became the new king
  • The Norman Conquest = an important point for English history, creating the English language
    • The Anglo-Saxons = German language, the Normans = French
  • William established a strong central government and made London the capital (many new castles, churches and cathedrals, the Tower of London)
  • The following ruler was Henry II. (2 sons: Richard I. And John I.)


The Battle of Hastings

  • when:1066
  • where: SE coast (UK) next to Normandy, near Hastings (town)
  • who: Edward, Harold (uk noble), Harald (king of Norway), William the Conqueror
  • what: king of England Edward died, began the battle of the throne of England, Harold the most powerful noble in England had to deal with Harald, who disembarked in the north of England, Harold defeated him, but lost a lot of men, meanwhile, William, Duke of Norman, invaded EN in the south, Harold had to hurry with the rest of his army and because of that he was defeated
  • historical importance: William conquered London, William crowned as a King of England


DOMESDAY BOOK – a written record of ownership and value of land (landholding was based on social hierarchy)

12th century – THOMAS BECKET (Archbishop of Canterbury) was murdered by 4 knights on the order of HENRY II – because he defended the independence of church

  • On base of it CANTENBURY TALES – GEOFFREY CHAUCER (14th century)
  • A collection of 24 stories (moral tales)
  • Mostly written in verse, some in prose
  • Told by pilgrims travelling to Canterbury to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket
  • The pilgrims (a knight, a merchant, a priest, a miller, a cook, a friar…) take turns telling stories to get a free lunch at Tabard Inn for the best tale
  • An ironic and critical portrait of English society at that time
  • Written in Middle English – differences from Modern English, e.g. – Chaucer pronounced -e at the end of words
  • Storytelling was the main entertainment in England at that time


Magna Carta [:kárta:]

  • when: 1215
  • where: England
  • who: King John Lackland and barons of England
  • what: King John (after brother Richard the Lionheart) worst king, lost Normandy (Lackland), huge taxes, barons had enough, entered London and forced John to sign the Magna Carta- charter of liberty
  • results: liberty, right to have a trial, obey the laws, limited power of the king, influenced the US constitution and many laws


The war of roses

  • between 1455 – 1485
  • between the HOUSE of LANCASTER (red rose) and the HOUSE of YORK (white rose)
  • The aim – to make a member of their family the king of England
  • The war ended when Hendy Tudor (Lancaster) defeated RICHARD III (York) and became King HENRY VII. He married Elizabeth of York and it united the two sides and ended the fighting.



  • 1485 – 1603
  • 1485 – the end of War of Roses
  • Henry VII – the winner of the war
  • -United the House of Lancaster and the House of York – he married Elizabeth of York
  • Henry VIII – 6 wives
    • Catherine of Aragondivorced -Mary (Bloody Mary)
    • Anne Boleynbeheaded – Elizabeth I (daughter)
    • Jane Seymour – died – Edward VI (son)
    • Anne of Cleves – divorced
    • Catherine Howardbeheaded
    • Catherine Parrsurvived
  • be accused of high treason/adultery/incest


Henry VIII. and the Church of England

  • when: 1534
  • where: England
  • who: King Henry VIII., Pope (Clement VII.) Catherine of Aragon, Anna Boleyn –wives
  • what: Catherine wasn’t able to give Henry a son(heir), Henry had then feelings for Anna, wanted to marry her, the church didn’t allow him divorce, Henry persuaded English bishops to make him head of the Church in England- Act of Supremacy (nadvláda), married Anna, Henry then closed and confiscated all religious institutions
  • results: Pope in Rome had no influence in England [Edward VI (son of Henry) died when 16 -> Queen Mary (bloody Mary-daughter of Catherin and Henry) burnt hundreds of Protestants]


Henry’s VIII advisers:

  • THOMAS MORE – deeply religious, learned, ascetic man
  • UTOPIA- More´s famous work
    • the name of the island where an ideal community is living without private property according to natural law and practising natural religion the base of Marxism-Leninism teachings
  • More – opposed the King´s divorce from Catherine of Aragon – accused of high treason – beheaded
  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey – an English Cardinal- the most important political adviser in the first half of Henry´s reign


Elizabeth  I

  • daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
  • outstanding queen of England
  • let her cousin – Mary Stuart (Queen of Scotland) executed
  • ruled not by force but by female diplomacy
  • was called VIRGIN QUEEN – never married
  • in 1588 the Spanish Armada invaded Eng., but was defeated by the British Navy led by SIR FRANCIS DRAKE – was supported by Queen
  • was the first monarch who gave her name to an era – ELIZABETHAN AGE or GOLDEN AGE (Shakespeare lived and wrote his plays during her reign)


King James I

  • (1603 – 25)
  • crowned in 1603, the son of Elizabeth´s old rival, Mary Queen of Scots
  • beginning of STUART DYNASTY
  • connected with Guy Fawkes – the plot was to blow up the Houses of Parliament with King James I on 5th November 1605


The English Civil War

  • when: 1642-1651
  • where: England (London)
  • who: Charles I., Oliver Cromwell, parliament
  • what: Charles, his politics “Divine Right” – king answers to no one but God, parliament didn’t like it, Charles a few times dismissed the parliament that led to a Civil War between the Crown (Royalists) and Parliamentarians (Roundheads) with Oliver Cromwell in the lead, King was defeated and 1649 beheaded for treason
  • results: monarchy abolished, England a republic (Commonwealth of England) governed by Lord Protector (Cromwell), parliament decided that they need a monarch -> Charles II. (son)


The Industrial Revolution and the British Empire

  • when: 17th and 18th century
  • where: England
  • who: James Watt, ..
  • what(+results): started in the textile industry, needed faster production of cloth bcs. of growing population, new methods-use water to work the machines, James Watt – steam engine, building factories with houses close, changes in society –people richer, working class – poor people, children had to work, 12-16h a day, city growth -> diseases, epidemic, soon it became better for the working class
  • Empire (Commonwealth) – started in 16th century colonizing North America (until 1776), India, Canada, Africa (more in 19th century), Australia


The battle of Trafalgar (1805)

  • Lord Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon near Trafalgar (south-west Spain), died on his ship HMS VICTORY (Trafalgar SQUARE)


The battle of Waterloo (1815)

  • not far from Brussels in Belgium
  • The British led by the Duke of Wellington defeated French Army of Napoleon


World War II. the Battle of Britain

  • war: in 1938 Munich Prime minster Chamberlain let Germany take German-speaking parts of Czs, in 1939 Germany invaded Poland, Britain entered war, 1940 Germany took over France, many British soldiers stuck in Dunkirk, saved by civil boats-Churchill-🡪
  • when: July 1940 – October 1940
  • where: in the air over England and English Channel
  • who: Luftwaffe, RAF
  • what: Luftwaffe had more aircrafts than Britain, but Britain thanks to their people with strong will and Churchill in the lead, they succeeded and won this battle over Hitler, his first defeat
  • results: Hitler put his England invasion on hold and concentrate his forces on east to invade Soviet Union, Britain remained free and could later help to defeat Nazis
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