Canada and Ireland – maturitní otázka (2)

angličtina

 

Otázka: Canada and Ireland

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Kateřina

 

 

CANADA

Location, geography, climate

  • The capital- Ottawa, the biggest city is Toronto
  • Currency- Canadian dollar [kenejdi,en] known for it is unusual form (plastic)
  • Population- 37,5 million
  • Languages- French, English
  • Head of state- It is an independent federal parliamentary system with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state
  • National symbols are:
    • The National flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre with a big red maple leaf
    • The national anthem (O Canada)
    • The National animal (beaver)
    • The Coat of Arms
    • Maple leaf
  • Canada is the second largest country in the world
  • It is located in North America – south of the Arctic and north of the United States
  • The border between Canada and USA is the longest in the world at 8,891km
  • Canada has one of the world’s biggest islands – Baffin Island, which is twice the size of the UK
  • Canada also has the world’s longest coastline (POBŘEŽÍ)
  • The country also has two of the biggest lakes in the world – Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake
  • The Great lakes: Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Erie (the largest body of fresh water on Earth)
  • The climate varies from Arctic climate in the North to moderate climate in the east and west
  • The north of the country near the Arctic is a cold tundra with large and beautiful forests to the south
  • Canada has large mountain areas – the Rocky Mountains, the Mackenzie Mountains and the Melville Hills
  • The highest mountain is Logan in the Alaska Region
  • The longest river is the Mackenzie
  • It´s a federation of 10 provinces (Ontario, Quebec, Alberta etc.) and 3 territories (Yukon, Nunawut and Northwest territories)

 

People, religions

  • ‘Kanata’ meaning ‘village’ or ‘settlement’ was the original name for the country
  • The French and British conquered the country, and now Canada is both French 30% and English 60% speaking
  • Despite the amount of space, most people live close to the US border where the climate is milder
  • The main religion is Christianity 67%

 

Fauna, flora

  • There are many special animals in Canada
  • Beaver, wolverine, opossum, Canada lynx, but also the reindeer and the moose
  • Flora is quite diverse due to the wide range in Canada
  • Canada is known for its forests
  • Typical symbol is maple or sequoia

 

Places of interest, biggest cities

  • The city of Toronto is known for its CN Tower, which used to be the highest tower in the world
  • Vancouver is famous for its outdoor sports and the 2010 winter Olympics took place here
  • Montreal in French-speaking Canada is a culturally interesting city (jazz festival, film festival…)
  • Other popular tourist attractions include the spectacular Niagara Falls and the Canadian Rockies (Rocky Mountains)

 

National parks

  • Yoho national park
  • Waterton Lakes National Park
  • Nahanni National Park
  • Banff National Park

 

Sport

  • The most popular sport is definitely ice hockey
  • Some others are lacrosse, baseball, football or curling

 

History

  • 1497 – Italian-born navigator John Cabot reaches the coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Breton.
  • 1534 – Jacques Cartier explores the St. Lawrence river, claims the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence for France.
  • 1756 – Seven Years' War begins, between New France and the larger and economically stronger British
  • After early French successes, the settlement of Quebec falls in 1759 and the British advance on Montreal
  • 1763 – Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain acquires all French colonies east of the Mississippi including New France, which becomes the colony of Quebec.
  • 1774 – The Quebec Act recognizes the French language and the Roman Catholic religion in the colony.
  • 1812-14 – War of 1812 between the US and Britain, largely over the effects on the US of British blockades of French ports. Action includes naval battles in the Great Lakes and a US attack on York (present-day Toronto).
  • But the US fails to realize its plans to invade Canada. (settled, not fought over)
  • The end of the colonial period – Union of Canada
  • 1867 – British North America Act unites Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in the Dominion of Canada

 

Economy

  • Canada has mainly coal, metal, oil and gas, machine-building and chemical industries. Motorcar industry has its works in Chatham and Oshawa, ship are built on the banks of Great Lakes.
  • Hydroelectric industry is highly developed in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec
  • Almost half the land area of Canada is covered by forests. Only about 7 per cent of land is suitable for farming (wheat).
  • Other important agriculture items oats, vegetables, fruits and leather. Natural resources: gold, uranium, other metal ores, oil and gas. Most people work in services, the rest work in manufacturing, agriculture, finance, fishing etc.

 

Ireland

Geography

  • Ireland is part of British Isles
  • To west of Ireland there is the Atlantic Ocean, to the east, across the Irish Sea, GB.
  • Capital city is Dublin
  • Dublin is know because of strong history of writers and poems like Oskar Wilde and James Joyce
  • The highest mountain is
  • The longest river is the

 

Climate

  • Ireland has a mild, changeable oceanic climate and lots of rain

 

Animals

  • It is the only country in Europe with no snakes – according to the legend St. Patrick drove them out into the sea.
  • The largest wild mammal in Ireland is DEER.
  • Thanks to the Irish mythological stories there is SWANS considered sacred (labutě považované za posvátné)
  • Similarly, on the Wolfhounds who are even one of the animal symbols representing Ireland

 

Population

  • 3,5 million inhabitants (50% of the population is under 25)
  • The population is of Celtic origin.
  • One of the last densely populated countries.

 

History

  • In the fifth century before Christ Ireland was invaded by the Gaels and the Celts.
  • In the fifth century after Christ St. Patrick and other monks brought christianity to Ireland and now it is big holiday for Irish.
  • For several hundred years the British ruled Ireland and the Irish worked on their land. In the sixteenth century, Britain became Protestant.
  • The settlers brought their own customes and traditions with them and Irish had to kept new rules and religion.
  • In the nineteenth century many people dependent on simple potato farming for survival. These years are known as the “Great Femine“ as one million people died and milions more fled.
  • Stuggling to gain independence from the UK and in 1921 has been divided politically into two parts.

 

Political system

  • Ireland is divided into 26 countries.
  • Is a parliamenty democracy.
  • It has a Parliament cosisting of an upper house (Senate) and lower house (House of Representative)
  • The head of the goverment is the prime minister, the head of state is the president Michael D. Higgins.
  • President is elected for 7 years term by direct vote of the people.

 

Economy

  • For Ireland, geography is a serious barrier to prosperity.
  • Located on the periphery of Europe, the island is isolated from main markets.
  • The economy still depends heavily on argiculture (there are more cattle than people on the island.)
  • Race horses, whiskey, hand-woven tweed and hand cut crystal glass are Ireland‘s world-famous exports.





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