The state educational school system in England and Wales:
– under 5 years – NURSERY (pre-school)
– 5-7 years – INFANT (primary school)
– 7-11 years – JUNIOR (primary school)
– 11-16 years – SENIOR (secondary school)
– 16plus – FURTHER EDUCATION (6-form colleges)
– 18plus – HIGHER EDUCATION (university)
Every child in Britain has to go to school from the age of five to sixteen. The great majority of parents send their childeren to state schools, where education and equipment, incuding textbooks are entirely free. Besides state schools there are independent schools for the children of all ages, which are financed by fees and private money.
Berore the age of five, some children go to kindergartens or nursery schools. All start at five in the infant department of a primary school.Boys and girls are taught together in most schools and usually wear school uniforms, the teachers are generally women. The school year begins in September, and is divided into three terms, with holidays at Christmas, at Easter, and in the summer. In british education students aren´t evaluated by marks but by grades from A to F. A is the best and F is the worst.
Many primary schools practice ?streaming”. Quite early, if a school is big enough, children are placed in ?streams”, which means that there are parallel classes learning at different speeds. ?A” Stream for children who learn the quickest, ?B” Stream for average pupils and ?C” Stream for slower children. After two years children move into the junior department. Here the work is of course more advanced than in the infant classes. There is less free activity in the classroom, less art and handcrafts. The school day usually lasts from 9 a. m. until 3 p. m., but the younger children do not stay for the whole day.At eleven they continue in secondary schools.
There are two type of secondary schools :
- a) comprehensive schools – non selective schools for all children, more common Than grammar schools
- b) grammar schools – offer mainly academic education up to 18 or 19 and are selective
education on secondary schools is based on three core subjects -English, mathematics and science together with seven other foundation subjects – technology, history, geography, music, art, physical education and a modern foreign language(mostly french,spanish or german).
At 16 the pupils who want to leave school take an examination in 8 – 10 subjects. They pass the examination G. C. S. E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) to find a job or G. C. E. (general certificate of education)to continue their studies. G. C. E. – ?O” – level (ordinary level).When they pass the ?O”- level, they can enter 6-form colleges, where they continue to study only three or four subjects they like best.these schools prepare students for a-level exam(advanced level), which the pass at the age of 18. There is new exam called Advanced Supplementary (AS) which enables the last-formers to increase the number of subjects studied, so they can study more than three or four subjects.
“A” – level passes are essential for entrance to a university.Only Oxford and Cambridge Universities require applicants to take an entrance examination as well.When students want to go to the university, they can send up to six applications.
Full-time university first degree courses usually last 3 or 4 years. The main qualification is B.A., B. SC. (Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science etc.)Within studies students usually spend some time away from the university and get practical experiences at work ( f.e. technology, medicine).Some students continue to study for Masters degrees (M.A., M. Sc., M. Phi) for two more years. A few of them go even further – they can get the degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD.) when they make original contributions to knowledge.nowadays britain has 47 universities.
the most well-known universities are:
the university of Cambridge – (often called Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. Early records indicate that the university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge, probably formed in 1209 by scholars escaping from Oxford after a fight with local townsmen.The universities of Cambridge and Oxford are jointly referred to by the portmanteau term Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities also have a long history of rivalry between them.
the university of Oxford – it´s located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world.The university traces its roots back to at least the end of the 11th century, although the exact date of foundation remains unclear. According to legend, after riots between scholars and townsfolk broke out in 1209, some of the academics at Oxford fled north-east to the town of Cambridge, where the University of Cambridge was founded. The two universities have since had a long history of competition with each other, and are the most selective universities in the United Kingdom .
the university of Glasgow – The University of Glasgow, founded in 1451, is the largest of the three universities in Glasgow, Scotland. It is a renowned centre for teaching and research and one of the ancient universities of Scotland and is amongst the largest and most prestigious in the United Kingdom.
In the U.S.A. there is not a national system of education.Each of the 50 states has its own laws regulating education. Every child gets minimum of 13 years of education.This is of course regardless of a child’s race, religion, sex, learning problems, ability to speak English or physical handicap.In the U.S.A. are two types of schools. Public, which are free and private schools. public schools prevail; not many pupils attend private schools. In american education students aren´t evaluated by marks but by grades from A to F. A being best and F being the worst.
The youngest children from 3 to 6 go to pre-school. This education includes nursery schools and kindergartens. Years in the U.S.A. are called grades, so primary school lasts from first grade until fifth grade.children in this school learn to read, write, history, arts, music and so on there.Secondary education pupils get in High schools (Middle schools). They can start study there when they are 11. Full secondary education up to the age of 18 is available for everyone. High Schools are divided into Junior High and senior high school. Secondary schools in USA are said to have worse quality than Czech. The elementary school leaving qualification is usually the High School Diploma.This exam isn´t compulsory. Students take this exam at the age of 18.
Higher education is extremely competitive and selective. There are two tests which are used by universities as standards for comparison: SAT (the Scholastic Aptitude Test , measures aptitudes in verbal and mathematical fields) and ACT (AMERICAN College Testing program, measures English, mathematical and scientifical skills). Only a small number of applicants are admitted. Completing the university studies is also very difficult. Universities in the U.S.A. are the best around the world ,so that´s the reason why they are so expensive.
the most well-known universities are:
Harvard universtiy – Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded on September 8, 1636 by a vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Harvard has the world’s largest university library collection (the third largest library overall after the British Library and the Library of Congress), and the largest financial endowment of any academic institution, standing at $25.9 billion as of 2005.
Yale university – Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, Yale is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Yale’s graduate programs include classics, English, pure, applied and engineering sciences, drama, art, architecture, literature, psychology, sociology, economics, management, music, history, medicine, nursing, and law.Yale and Harvard have for most of their history been rivals in almost everything, notably academics, rowing and football.
Princeton – Princeton University is a coeducational private university located on an extensive campus in and around suburban Princeton, New Jersey. It is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the eight Ivy League universities] Originally founded at Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1746 as the College of New Jersey, it was relocated to Princeton in 1756 and renamed “Princeton University” in 1896.Princeton is primarily focused on undergraduate education and academic research, although the university also offers some professional Master’s degrees and PhD programs in a range of subjects. At over eleven million volumes, its library is among the world’s largest university libraries. Primary areas of research include anthropology, geophysics, entomology, and robotics, while the Forrestal Campus has special facilities for the study of plasma physics and meteorology.
School attendance in the Czech republic is compulsory from the age of six to fifteen.Most children attend state schools, but there are also private and church schools.Education at state schools up to eighteen is free of charge, but students at secondary schools must pay for their textbooks.Private and church schools charge school fees.All schools are coeducational, which means that girls and boys are taught together.Students do not wear uniforms.Handicaped children are educated separately. Education in our country includes these stages: pre-school, primary, secondary and higher education.
The school year starts on 1st September and ends on 30th June of the following year. The school year is divided into two terms (September – January, February – June).Classes usualy begin between eight and eight-fifteen.There are usually six lessons in a row followed by a lunch break and then afternoon lessons, if there are any.Breaks between lessons last from five to twenty minutes.
Pre-school education is provided by nursery schools and kindergartens for children aged three to six.At six children start going to primary schools and they stay there until fifteen. Primary schools have fewer lessons than secondary schools, which have about 35 a week. Pupils are evaluated by marks from one to five. Each term students get their school report with marks from all their subjects. Then pupils sit for entrance examinations to secondary schools (some secondary schools accept students according to their previous school reports). But at the age of eleven or thirteen some pupils can enter to a grammar school after they passed an entrance examination.
Secondary schools – several types:
- a) Grammar schools – general and academic education, which prepares students for university (Gymnasium)
- b) Special (technical) schools – technical colleges, specialised in building, chemistry, business academies, music and art schools
- c) Vocational schools – prepare students for practical professions
Secondary education usually lasts for four years and at grammar and technical schools are finished with a school-leaving examination, which is taken in four subjects. The compulsory exam from Czech is divided in oral and written part. Students can finish their studies or for those, who don’t want to study at university can attend two-year courses with specialisation for managers, businessmen, language expert, etc.
higher education lasts from four to six years. students can send out an unlimited number of applications, but they have to cover admission fees.they are accepted after they have passed an entrance examination. The exam consists of a written text and an interview. The university students can study at three-year courses for a Bachelor’s Degree or for four (five) for a Master’s Degree. Doctoral Degrees are awarded after another few individual years of study. Written parts of these degrees are called thesis.Full time university students are expected to bear the expense of their tuition and they also must pay for their accomodation and board.students from distant places usually lodge at a hall of residence (dormitory/dorm).Only a limited number of students get a grant or a scholarship.
the most well-known university is:
Charles university – Charles University in Prague founded in the late 1340s , was the first German language university and is among the oldest universities in Europe. It is the oldest, largest and most prestigious university in the Czech Republic, named after its founder Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, in what was then the Kingdom of Bohemia, a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.The University was traditionally mostly German-speaking, however since the end of the 19th century Czech was increasingly used. Until the Second World War the University consisted of two sections: A German and a Czech language section.According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University it was qualified as the leading university not only in the Czech Republic, but in the whole region of Central and Eastern Europe, together with the University of Szeged in Hungary.
Summary – Main differences between czech and english educational system :
the beginning of school attendance
parts of school year
marks (1-5; A-E)
in Czech education we have no exams after leaving compulsory education