English language – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)


Otázka: English language

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Domix




  • About 5000 C. – Celts (the Indo-Europeans) Britain
  • About 3000 B.C. – Romans inclusive Caesar + Latin
    Britain (only a few latin words entered these times)
  • 450 D. Angles and Saxons +‘Englise‘ from Holland, Denmark and Germany Britain
  • 597 A.D.–Saint Augustine + Christianity in LatinBritain
    • Latin and Greek words entered Old English
  • 1066 French duke (vevoda) deWilliam defeated the English king Harold – the Battle of Hastings French words an important part of English
  • In the next 200years, Old English =)‘Middle English‘


Spread (rozšíření) of English

  • Nowadays numbers
    • 400milions of people – first language
    • 250m-350m as a second language
    • Billion– learning it (AmE-miliarda, BrE-bilion)
    • 1/3 of the world population – in some sense exposed to it


  • Reasons
    • Colonisation – process of spreading English
      • 19th century across the British colonial empire settled America – S. soon world power
    • Growth of cinema, tv, pop music, PC, net


Influence of English

  • The Germanic influence
    • Anglo-Saxons‘s Germanic language=basis of Old Eng.
    • Usually short words which tend to be informal in modern English – ex.: shoe, clothes, earth, sun, moon, day, food, water, love, wife, man, child, man, live, have, be
  • The French influence
    • Norman-French =used as the language of government
    • Gradual process – ordinary p. still speaking Old Eng.
    • Norman feast – The English look after animals for killing them, still calling them their names→ put at the table to Normans who called the meat in their way
  • The colonial influence
    • Words as a result of trade and colonial expansion
    • Former colonies invented other words


Variants of English

  • British; American; Canadian; Australian/New Zealand; India-Pakistan; African



  • All mouth and no trousers — All talk, no action
  • Doofer — An unnamed object. Thing, thingamajig, whatchamacallit.
  • Marbles — Wit, intelligence, or good sense.
  • Tosh — Nonsense
  • DodgySuspicious
  • SkiveLazy or avoid doing something


American vs British English

  • Differences: intonation, spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary.
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