Festivals and holidays – otázka z angličtiny

 

Otázka: Festivals and holidays

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Majuni

 

 

 

 

 

UK

British-conservative
( still traditional system of weights and measures, drive on the left, uniforms, democracy, monarchy-part of government )
-proud of isles-give them security
( English channel separates them from the “Continent”)
-fond of pets, children, mania for tea

 

New Year’s Day- 1st January
-people take shower in the fountains of Trafalgar Square
-titles and decorations are conferred by the sovereign
-New Year’s resolutions
-celebrating
-superstitions (eating lens or pork brings money and welfare, braking the glass means bad luck in the following years)

St. Valentine’s Day- 14th February
-also called Lover’s day, Sweat-heart’s day
-commemorates the Roman priest who gave aid and comfort to persecuted Christians before he was put to death
-Valentines cards are sent by young people anonymously (or gifts, flowers-especially tulips) which might be serious or funny

St. Patrick’s Day:17th March
-the patron saint of Ireland
-during 4/5. century
-born in Wales
-almost didn’t have a chance to become a bishop, as he didn’t have necessary scholarship
-until he was 16 years old, he’s been a pagan
-he was sold to slavery by marauders, who attacked his village => turned to God
-later he escaped, moved to Gaul, where he studied on a monastery under st. Germain
-he always wished to return to Ireland and there to convert the pagans to Christianity
-instead of him Paladius was appointed as a bishop, but he later moved to Scotland and therefore he was able to take his place
-many times he got into conflict with druids =>arrested but escaped each time
-travelled throughout Ireland
-he established monasteries, schools, churches
-icon of the day is shamrock: Father, Son and the holy spirit = Trinity
*raised people from death and drove all snakes from Ireland

All Fools Day:1st April
-custom of playing jokes and tricks on people, than shout out April Fool

Easter: April
-feast of the Christian church
-pre-christian tradition- intention to celebrate the spring equinox
-Good Friday- Jesus crucifixion
Easter Sunday- resurrection of Jesus
-Easter eggs are being dyed and decorated, confectionery is given to children as a symbol of new life
-celebrated on Sunday

May Day: 1st May
-political parties of the left hold processions and public meetings

Mother’s Day: 2nd Sunday in May
-honours all mothers

Halloween: 31st October
-Holy evening
-more important in USA
-connected with witches and ghosts
-people go to parties, they dress up in strange costumes
-Jack O’Lantern-made from pumpkin, cut face in the vegetable, put candles inside
-playing various games
-recent years- children wear white sheets, knock on the door and ask: trick or treat
(if you give something, you’re nice and it means treat, so children go away, but if you don’t give anything, they play tricks on you)
-Celts celebrated it as the last day of the year and the beginning of the winter
-Christians celebrated it as the Eve of All Saints Day

Guy Fawkes Day: 5th November
-King James was unpopular with the Roman Catholics
-they decided to blow the parliament on the day James was about to open it
-they stored the gun powder, which was to be exploded by the Guy Fawkes
-but someone spoke about it before it happened and Guy was arrested and hanged for the rebellion
-today burning of the dummy (dummy = Guy), in the evening firework show
-children on the streets ask: “penny for the Guy”, they collect money for the fireworks
Remembrance Day: 11th November
-ceremony in the White hall in London
-2 minutes of silence for those killed in the 2 world wars

Christmas: 24th December

-derived from the words Christ’s Mass- the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ
-Christian celebration, but also a combination of pagan and Christian festivities
-Christmas trees were symbols of the eternal life in pre-Christian times in Northern Europe as they were evergreens, trees that remain throughout the year
-Mistletoe- Christmas decoration, symbol of love and reconciliation
licenses you to kiss whoever you like underneath it (origin of this custom comes from the Norse myth of Balder and Loki:
Balder, the sun god, was immune to all things accept mistletoe. He was consequently killed by an arrow of a mistletoe, made by god of evil Loki. But Balder was brought back to life and mistletoe was told never to harm him again)
-lighting candles at Christmas- pre-Christian roots
Jewish feast Hanukkah – candles were lit
Roman festival Saturnalia – fire, food and light were celebrated
(to keep out or to forget the darkness of deepest winter
-Holly- Christmas decoration, Christian associations
In Norwegian, Swedish and Danish- known as Christ’s thorns, legend- Christ wore crown of holly thorns before his death
holly X holy
-giving presents and gifts – Roman saturnalia, good luck gifts were given: fruit, pastry or gold on New Year’s Day
In Britain presents are given on Christmas Day (25th December),
Feast of St Stephen is known as Boxing Day (26th December) – priests of Middle Ages opened alms boxes to give to the poor , later it was a custom to give to the servants and public workers to be given the boxes
-first Christmas card designed an English artist , William Egley in 1842
he sent it to 100 of his friends
– Christmas food before 16th century- boar’s head, followed by a roast peacock
then sailors from the New World brought turkey (from Mexico)=>traditional British Christmas dinner
minced pies- used to be made from meat, today contain raisins, currants, sugar, candied peel and apples
plum pudding – doesn’t contain plums, used to contain prunes, today currants, raisins, sultanas, eggs ,spices, suet…
some people make the pudding a year before they eat it, it tastes *better*
they also put coins inside
-Christmas Eve (24th December )- not so important, only preparations
-story about Santa, hanging stockings on beds, larger gifts are to be found under the tree, leaving minced pies for Santa
– Christmas trees are decorated by coloured ornaments , the room with holly and ivy a spring of mistletoe over the door

 

USA

-not conservative: time’s money, not so reserved
not many national holidays- each state has a right to decide its own holidays
-most of the holidays – Federal public holidays
-many ethnic groups => their own customs and traditions
-differ especially about holidays connected with religious feasts-
Easter, Christmas

USA and Britain celebrate also christening, birthday and namesday
Martin Luther King’s Day: 3rd Monday in January
-black leader and civil rights campaigner. He demanded racial equality. As and advocate of nonviolence he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964. He was assassinated.

Easter- April
-not a national holiday
– dyed eggs, sweets
-parents hide eggs, children look for them
-Easter Egg roll- in front of White house on Easter Monday

Memorial Day: 4th Monday in May
-honours all Americans killed in past wars and all the dead
-flowers and flags are placed on graves
-beginning of the summer season

Independence Day: 4th July
-each state its own ceremony, parade
-concerts and fireworks in the evening
-commemorates Declaration of Independence 1776 and establishing USA

Columbus Day: 12th October
-anniversary of discovery of the USA by Ch. Columbus 1492

Halloween: 31th October

Thanksgiving: 4th Thursday in November
-1621 1st celebration – pilgrim settlers of Plymouth Colony on their first harvest
– story about Mayflower, puritans, no food, help of Indians => Thanks to them, invitation, corn, turkey, deer…
-family together dinner- roasted turkey

Christmas: 24th December
-not a national holiday (British, Christianity)
-invite friends…

 

THE CZECH REPUBLIC

THE STATE (PUBLIC) HOLIDAYS

 

There are some days in our country, which are important not just for one person or for one family, but for the whole country.

 

Р     January 1st, 1993 – it is the date of foundation of the Czech Republic. Generally January 1st is called the New Year’s Day.

Р     May 1st – political parties on the left celebrate a holiday of working people – May Day.

Р     May 8th – the day of the liberation of Czechoslovakia from the Nazis. It marks the end of WWII.

Р     July, 5th – the day of St. Cyril and St. Method who came from Byzantium to teach the people of Great Moravia how to read and write.

Р     July, 6th – Master John Huss – a Catholic preacher of the commons was burned to death at the stake as a heretic in 1415.

Р     September 28th – St. Wenceslas Day. St. Wenceslas is the saint patron of the Czech lands.

Р     October 28th, 1918 – it is the date of foundation of the first independent Czechoslovak Republic.

Р     November 2nd – this day is for our ancestors. The day is dedicated to honouring deceased family members. We go to the cemetery to place flowers and candles on their graves.

Р     November 17th – the beginning of the “velvet revolution”.

 






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