Great Britain – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

Otázka: Great Britain

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Lucie

 

General information

–          Official name:

  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain

 

Countries:

  • England – London
  • Scotland – Edinburgh
  • Wales – Cardiff
  • Northern Ireland- Belfast

 

–          Population: inhabitants 62 mil.

–          System of government: constitutional monarchy

–          Currency: £ 1 -> 100 pence

 

Geography

–          Location: Britain is located in the north-west of Europe on the British Isles.

–          Oceans and seas: (Britain is surrounded by = obklopena: )

  • The Atlantic Ocean
  • The Irish Sea (in the west)
  • The Celtic Sea
  • The North Sea (in the east)

 

  • The English Channel (La Manche) – between England and France
  • The Strait of Dover – between England and France

 

–          Groups of islands:

  • The Hebrides
  • The Orkneys (in the north)
  • The Shetlands

 

–          Islands:

  • The Isle of Man
  • The Isle of Wight
  • The Channel Islands (near Normandy)

 

–          Mountain ranges (=pohoří)

  • The Scottish Highlands
  • The Grampians
  • The Pennies = backbone of England
  • The Cambrians
  • Ben Nevis – nejvyššíhora 1 343 m.n.m.

 

–          Rivers:

  • The Thames
  • The Severn – the longest
  • The Avon
  • The Trent
  • The Tyne
  • The Mersey (Liverpool)

 

–          Lakes:

  • Loch Lomond – the biggest lake (Skotskéjezero)
  • Loch Ness
  • Lake District – about 80 lakes

 

–          Cities:

  • Birmingham (industrial)
  • Sheffield (coal=uhlí)
  • Manchester (textile)
  • Liverpool
    • The Beatles
    • Liver Building (nejznámějšístavba)
    • Port
  • Portsmouth
    • Spinnaker Tower
    • Victory (ship)
    • Port
  • Brighton
    • Royal Pavilion (oriental style)
    • Sea aquarium
  • Dover
  • Leeds (industrial)
  • Nottingham
    • The oldest pub in England
    • Robin Hood
  • Oxford
    • The oldest university 12th century
  • Cambridge
    • University 1206
  • Winchester
    • The longest nave (loď v katedrále) – 180 m
  • Chichester
  • Salisbury
    • The tallest tover
  • Canterbury
  • Newcastle
  • York
    • Whitey city walls
    • Válkarůží
  • Stratford
    • Shakespeare’s birth place
  • Hastings
    • Battle in 1066 (VilémDobyvatelvítěz)

 

–          Other interesting places:

  • Stonehenge
    • Stone circle which is about 600 years old
    • It was used for rituals

 

–          Castles:

  • Warwick [worik]
  • Many castles are located in Wales (Conway)
  • Blenheim [blenem] Palace
    • Birth place of Winston Churchill

 

–          Scotland:

  • Production of whisky
  • Kilt – typical skirt won by men
  • Bagpipes = dudy
  • Thitle = bodlák
  • Glasgow
    • The biggest city in Scotland
    • Famous university
  • Edinburgh
    • Capital of Scotland
    • Castle (ghotic)

Political system

–          Constitutional monarchy

–          (the) Constitution is unwritten

  • Is based (založena) on traditions

–          The formal head of state is Queen/King – now Elisabeth the IInd(since 1952)

–          Three branches (složky) of power (moci)

  • Executive power (výkonnámoc)
    • Prime minister PM (10 Downing Street) – number 10
      • Now David Cameron
      • He’s had of the cabinet=government
  • Legislative power (zákonodárnámoc)
    • The Parliament:
      • House of Commons – 650 MPs (members of parliament) – general election
      • House of Lords – about 700 – dedičné+jmenovaní
  • Judicial power
    • The Royal Court  of Justice (nejvyššísoud)

 

–          Main political parties:

  • Conservative party (Tory)   (right-wing)
  • Liberal Democrats (Whigs)
  • Labour parts    (left-wing)

 

–          National symbols:

  • Anthem (hymna) – God Save the Queen (King)
  • Flag – Union Jack
    • St. George’s Cross – England
    • St. Andrew’s Cross – Scotland
    • St. Patrick’s Cross – Ireland (původní)

History

–          600 BC : Arrival of the original inhabitants – Celts

–          Caesar se pokusildobít Br., ale neuspěl

–          Emperor Claudius conquered (dobil) Br.

  • Britain part of Roman Empire
  • Londonium (u Temžě->výhodná poloha)

–          Hadrian’s Wall

  • Located between today‘s E and Scotland
  • Now there are only some ruins

–          Romains left Britain forever

  • Towns and cities which end with –chester used to be Romans camps

–          Arrival of Germanic tribes

  • Angles, Saxons, Jutes => 7 kingdom
  • Legendary king Arthur

–          Vikings (from Scandinavia) -> many conflicts

–          9thcentury: Beginnings of England (sjednocené)

–          Danes colonized a part of England

–          1066: End of Anglo-Saxon England – invasion from Normandy

  • William the Conqueror (dobyvatel) defeated (porazil) the last A-S king Harold II. in the battle of Hastings

–          12thcentury: House of Plantagenet

  • Richard the Lionheart
  • John the Lackland (bezzemek, ztratilúzemíveFrancii)
    • he signed 1215 Magna Carta (it limited the power of king)
    • beginnings of parliament

–          1337: Hundred Year’s War (E X F) -> F won

–          1346: Battle of Crecy (Kresčak) (†John of Luxembourg)

–          John Wycliffe – he criticized Catholic Church (he was inspiration for Jan Hus)

–          15thcentury: War of roses (House of Lancaster X York)

–          House of Tudor

  • Henri VIII.
    • Had 6 wives – 2 of them was executed (popraveny)
    • He established the Church of England (protest) because he wante to devorce
  • Elisabeth I.
    • Virgin Queen (because he never married)
    • Age of Shakespeare

–          Civil War: Charles I. X Oliver Cromwell (Parliament)

  • Charles I. was executed
  • Republic (1649-1660)

–          1707: Great Britain (E+S)

–          Canada and Australia became colonies

–          Napoleonic Wars:

  • Battle of Trafalgar (†H.Nelson)
  • Battle of Waterloo (Wellington)

–          1784: J. Watt (parnístroj)

–          1825: G. Stephenson (lokomotiva)

–          1837-1901: Victoria

  • Golden times of Br. Empire
  • GB was the most powerful country in the World

–          1914-1918: World War I.

  • Br.+F+Russia+USA

–          House of Windsor

–          1939-1945: World War II.

–          Winston Churchill – PM

  • Battle of Britain – Royal air force (Czechoslovak pilots) X Luftwaffe

–          1952: Elisabeth II. (60 year)

–          1973: European Community – EU

–          1979-1990: PM – Margaret Thatcher = Iron Lady

–          1996-2007: T.Blair

–          2010-? : D. Cameron






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