Otázka: History and personalities – CR
Přidal(a): Veronika S.
In the 4th century BC Celtic tribes settled in the area Bohemia. In the 7th century, the Frankisch merchant Samo became the ruler of the first known Slavic state in central Europe, which was partly situated in present-day Moravia. The Importance of Moravia grew further.
While Great Moravia declined towards the end of the 9th century, the Czech state was unified by the Přemyslids and prospered. In 1306 the Přemyslid dynasty had died out by the sword and after several years of instability, the Czech throne went by way of a dynastie wedding to the Luxeburgs. The Czech Kingdom became also the centre of the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Carles IV and his son Wenceslas IV. During the reign of Charles IV (1346 – 1378) Prague grew into one of the largest European metropolises of that era, and was significant centre of education, architecture and the arts. In 1384 he was founded Charles University.
The first part of the 15th century is marked by the Hussite Movement. It is named after Jan Hus, who was burnt as the stake as a heretic. The leading representatives of the Hussite Movement were Jan Žiška and Prokop Holý.
After the reign of King Jiří z Poděbrad, who make a treaty securing peace, and after the period of the rule of Jagellonian dynasty on the Czech throne there came the period of the Hapsburg dynasty. In 1620 was the Battle on the White Mountain
Nevertheless, the 19th century brought a time of national revival, so when World War I ended in 1918, the Czech nation able to take its fate into its own hands in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic. Though this was destroyed by the German occupation (1939 – 1945) it appeared again after World War II. In 1948 the power was taken over by the communists directed by the Soviet Union.
In 1968 the “Prague Spring” was oppressed by the invasion of the Soviet army and the “normalization” lasted about another 20 years till the “velvet revolution” in 1989. In 1993 Czechoslovakia divided into two independent states – the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
Sport: Jaromír Jágr, Dominik Hašek || Martina Navrátilová, Radek Štěpánek || Emil Zátopek, Jarmila Kratochvílová, Dana zátopková, Jan Železný, Roman šebrle ||
Art: Karel Čapek, Josef Čapek, Milan Kundera, Antonín Dvořák, Bedřich Smetana, Miloš Forman, Jaroslav Heyrovský, Jaroslav Seifert
Politics: T. G. Masarique, Václav Havel, Milada Horáková…