History of England – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

Otázka: History of England

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): klarkak

 

 

 

 

The Celts

  • came from central Europe
  • lived in tribes
  • were good at crafts and agriculture
  • celts languages – Gaelsh, Welsh
  • were pushed to the north by Romans – founded Scotland

 

The Romans – 2nd century

  • established Hadrian Wall – protected the country from the attacts from Scotland
  • founded cities which ends with chester (Manchester, Colchester)
  • established the 1st road, the city of bath
  • founded London and conquered the British Isles

 

the Anglo-Saxons and Wikings

  • came from Scandinavia
  • were good at sailing
  • 829 – small citie were united

 

the Normans

  • came from the north of France
  • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – William the Conquerer
  • French as the official language, Latin in the Church, English in small town and poor people
  • 1120´s crusades – because of disageement between the King and the Church
  • 1250 – Magna Carta – document which limited the king´s power in favour aristocracy, raised taxes and established the republic
  • 14th century – The Hundred Years War – between France and England over territories, France won and gained back their territoties

– Edward III made England the strongest millitary power in Europe a wanted to gain more territories, but English people were weakned with epidemy of plague called the Black Death

  • lountry revolutions – John Wicklif

 

The Wars of the Roses – 1455

  • civil war between House of York and House of Lancaster
  • because government ruled instead of little Henry VI who wasn´t adult

 

The Tudors

  • the period of economy prosperity – trade with wool and cloth
  • Henry VIII
    • had 6 wives, 1 son and 2 daugters
    • confiscated church property and established the new church „Church of England“ to get divorced – the king is the head of church
    • Catholics to Protestants
    • executed 2 wives, 1 died in childbirth, 2 divorced and 1 outlived him
  • Edward VI
    • son of Henry VIII
    • died young
  • Bloody Mary
    • tried to make England Catholic – burning 274 protestants
  • Elizabeth I
    • from age 25 on the throne- for 45 years
    • never married, without children
    • Elizabethan Age – Golden Age
    • found schools, hospitals, encourage theatres and art – William Shakespeare
    • Sir Francis Drake – sailor for the queen
    • 1588 – the power of the sea

Spain X England

130 ships X 34 ships – winner due to small ships in La Manch channel and due to storm

 

the Stuarts

  • was called from Scotland
  • Catholics
  • James I, Charles I
    • worked without parliament which caused civil war
  • Oliver Cromwell – „Lord Protector“
    • millitary leader, puritan – no other religion is allowed
    • established republic
    • closed theatres and pubs
  • Charles II
    • from France
    • end of republic – king as the highest power
  • 1688 – the Glorious Revolution
    • theatres and pubs opened
  • James II
    • tried to rule on his own
    • Catholic
    • Mary with husband
      • House of Orange
      • were invited by Parliament to rule
      • protestant
    • the revolution without fighting → James didn´t want to fight and escape
    • ! 1689 – the Bill of Rights
      • limits the power of the king
    • constitutional monarchy
  • Industrial Revolution – 1750
    • building factories, constructing railways, children worked very hard and in bad conditions
    • movement to cities
    • new branch of industry
    • „workshop in the world“ – the power of industrial countries
  • 1760´s – war between Britain and France
    • 7 years long
    • Britain won and gained Canada but lost 13 colonies in the USA – 13 stripes on flag
    • War of Independence – the USA had to pay taxes but didn´t have the members in Parliament
  • Napoleonic Wars
    • Napoleon – admiral od France who wanted to attack Britain but in the bottle at Trafalgar was defeated by admiral Nelson – the statue at Trafalgar square in London
  • Victoria
    • led reforms in health care, education – public schools
    • „The Sun never sets above British Empire“ – had colonies around the whole world – Canada, Australia, Egypt, India
  • WW I – 1914 – 1918
    • lost colonies – only India stayed
    • new ways how to transport
    • 11 November – Rememberance day – to remember the killed people
    • the USA became the power of the world
  • WW II – 1939 – 1945
    • 1940 – Bottle of London – Germany wanted to destroy English Royal Air Force and became the power of aviation
    • Disambarkment in Normandy – allies attacted Germany in part of France and it led to relief Europe
  • Recently it took part in wars against terorism in the muslims states in Middle East with the USA
  • EU, NATO, G7 – but there is izolation towards Europe – they wants to be different






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