History of England – maturitní otázka

angličtina

 

Otázka: History of England

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): klarkak

 

 

The Celts

  • came from central Europe
  • lived in tribes
  • were good at crafts and agriculture
  • celts languages – Gaelsh, Welsh
  • were pushed to the north by Romans – founded Scotland

 

The Romans – 2nd century

  • established Hadrian Wall – protected the country from the attacts from Scotland
  • founded cities which ends with chester (Manchester, Colchester)
  • established the 1st road, the city of bath
  • founded London and conquered the British Isles

 

the Anglo-Saxons and Wikings

  • came from Scandinavia
  • were good at sailing
  • 829 – small citie were united

 

the Normans

  • came from the north of France
  • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – William the Conquerer
  • French as the official language, Latin in the Church, English in small town and poor people
  • 1120´s crusades – because of disageement between the King and the Church
  • 1250 – Magna Carta – document which limited the king´s power in favour aristocracy, raised taxes and established the republic
  • 14th century – The Hundred Years War – between France and England over territories, France won and gained back their territoties

– Edward III made England the strongest millitary power in Europe a wanted to gain more territories, but English people were weakned with epidemy of plague called the Black Death

  • lountry revolutions – John Wicklif

 

The Wars of the Roses – 1455

  • civil war between House of York and House of Lancaster
  • because government ruled instead of little Henry VI who wasn´t adult

 

The Tudors

  • the period of economy prosperity – trade with wool and cloth
  • Henry VIII
    • had 6 wives, 1 son and 2 daugters
    • confiscated church property and established the new church „Church of England“ to get divorced – the king is the head of church
    • Catholics to Protestants
    • executed 2 wives, 1 died in childbirth, 2 divorced and 1 outlived him
  • Edward VI
    • son of Henry VIII
    • died young
  • Bloody Mary
    • tried to make England Catholic – burning 274 protestants
  • Elizabeth I
    • from age 25 on the throne- for 45 years
    • never married, without children
    • Elizabethan Age – Golden Age
    • found schools, hospitals, encourage theatres and art – William Shakespeare
    • Sir Francis Drake – sailor for the queen
    • 1588 – the power of the sea

 

Spain X England

  • 130 ships X 34 ships – winner due to small ships in La Manch channel and due to storm

 

the Stuarts

  • was called from Scotland
  • Catholics
  • James I, Charles I
    • worked without parliament which caused civil war
  • Oliver Cromwell – „Lord Protector“
    • millitary leader, puritan – no other religion is allowed
    • established republic
    • closed theatres and pubs
  • Charles II
    • from France
    • end of republic – king as the highest power
  • 1688 – the Glorious Revolution
    • theatres and pubs opened
  • James II
    • tried to rule on his own
    • Catholic
    • Mary with husband
      • House of Orange
      • were invited by Parliament to rule
      • protestant
    • the revolution without fighting → James didn´t want to fight and escape
    • ! 1689 – the Bill of Rights
      • limits the power of the king
    • constitutional monarchy

 

Industrial Revolution – 1750

  • building factories, constructing railways, children worked very hard and in bad conditions
  • movement to cities
  • new branch of industry
  • „workshop in the world“ – the power of industrial countries

 

1760´s – war between Britain and France

  • 7 years long
  • Britain won and gained Canada but lost 13 colonies in the USA – 13 stripes on flag
  • War of Independence – the USA had to pay taxes but didn´t have the members in Parliament

 

Napoleonic Wars

  • Napoleon – admiral od France who wanted to attack Britain but in the bottle at Trafalgar was defeated by admiral Nelson – the statue at Trafalgar square in London

 

Victoria

  • led reforms in health care, education – public schools
  • „The Sun never sets above British Empire“ – had colonies around the whole world – Canada, Australia, Egypt, India

 

WW I – 1914 – 1918

  • lost colonies – only India stayed
  • new ways how to transport
  • 11 November – Rememberance day – to remember the killed people
  • the USA became the power of the world

 

WW II – 1939 – 1945

  • 1940 – Bottle of London – Germany wanted to destroy English Royal Air Force and became the power of aviation
  • Disambarkment in Normandy – allies attacted Germany in part of France and it led to relief Europe

 

Recently it took part in wars against terorism in the muslims states in Middle East with the USA

EU, NATO, G7 – but there is izolation towards Europe – they wants to be different





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