History of the United States of America – otázka z angličtiny

 

Otázka: History of the USA

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): fessi

 

 

 

 

            Before the civilisation

  • America was first populated by Native Americans (people migrating from Asia)
  • they had been living there about 50,000 years before Christopher Columbus came there
  • actually the first explorer were Nordic nations
  • when first European explorer arrived in America they started call them „Indian“
  • arrival of European explorers in the 15 century (1492 – arrival of Christopher Columbus)
  • modern Southwest had been colonized by Spain and France
  • later, the inhabited area by England became a British colony
  • 1760s British government imposed a series of new taxes

 

            American Revolution

  • 1775 to 1783
  • a war between Great Britain and the original 13 British colonies in America
  • the French and Indian War cost Britain a lot of money. Britain wanted the American colonies to help pay for it
  • 1760s British passed new laws that made colonists pay taxes on sugar, tea, and other things
  • 1774 colonists held the First Continental Congress
  • the colonists began to think that they were not getting their rights
  • they wanted to be treated fairly by the English government
  • the colonists organized their own army, the American Army was led by George Washington and the army were helped by France and Spain
  • the colonies became independent in 1783
  • 1787 a constitution
  • 1789 George Washington became the first President of the United States

 

            Civil War

  • 1861 – 1865
  • the southern states tried to leave the union – they did not want slavery to be banned, they states didn’t want the North telling them what to do or making laws they didn’t want
  • they formed a new country, the Confederate States of America, and went to war with the US
  • after four years of the war the industrial North was able to beat the South
  • president Lincoln wanted the South to rejoin the Union but he was assassinated – without him the South was punished for the rebellion
  • the Civil War was the first war that was widely photographed

 

            World War I

  • America wanted to keep out of the war
  • 1915 american factories were making a lot of weapons for Allies
  • United States learns of Zimmermann telegram (telegram attempting to incite Mexico to attack the United States)
  • Germans started the submarine war – US declared war on Germany
  • the United States was unprepared for its entrance into the First World War – their army numbered only 300,000
  • Wilson´s fourteen points

 

            The Great Depression

  • 1929 the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history
  • in the late 1920s, businesses and factories began to close
  • began soon after the stock market crash
  • economic depression spread across the country and the world
  • rising levels of unemployment, people were without work and money, didn´t have food or clothes
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 convinced Congress to pass the New Deal, helped keep banks in business and protect people’s savings
  • new deal: every U.S. state had ordered all remaining banks to close at the end of the fourth wave of banking panics
  • new inventions: second hands, contraception

 

            World War II

  • 1939 war broke out in Europe
  • 1941 Pearl Harbor attack took place (after US declared war to Japan and then Germany declared war to America)
  • America joined the war with the Allies
  • Manhattan project
  • 1944 Invasion in Normandy (general Eisenhower)
  • they knew they are going to win this war

 

            Cold War

  • lasted over forty years 1947 – 1991 (ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union)
  • political and military tension after World War II
  • America and the Soviet Union competed with the technology (mostly nuclear)
  • there was a tension from the nuclear attacks
  • problemes with the military bases – Cuba
  • F. Kennedy´s assassination
  • conflicts:
    • after World War II, Korea was divided into North and South Korea. North Korea became communist. South Korea was a capitalist country. North Korean army invaded South Korea. The United Nations sent soldiers to help South Korea
    • in 1959, Cuba became a communist country and the Soviets secretly put missiles there. President Kennedy was afraid the Soviet Union would attack the United States

 

            Korean War

  • 1950-1953
  • the Korean War was fought between South Korea and communist North Korea
  • war began when the North Korean Communist army invaded non-Communist South Korea
  • it was the first major conflict of the Cold War as the Soviet Union supported North Korea and the United States supported South Korea
  • war ended with little resolution, the countries are still divided today

 

            Vietnam War

  • during the 1950s and 1960s, the United States fought wars to stop communism
  • Vietnamese became independence in 1954
  • country was split into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam
  • in the early 1960s, communists in South Vietnam tried to overthrow the government
  • the United States sent military advisers and supplies to help South Vietnam, later they sent also soldiers
  • the U.S. was spending billions of dollars on the war. Many American soldiers were dying
  • people had antiwar demonstrations in many parts of the country
  • in 1969, Richard Nixon became president, he started bringing soldiers home
  • over 55,000 Americans died in the war
  • communism was not stopped in Vietnam

 

            Watergate and Richard Nixon

  • a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s
  • at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington
  • the scandal really begins during 1972, when the burglars were arrested
  • the Nixon administration’s tried to cover-up of its involvement
  • by early 1974, the nation knew about Watergate
  • Nixon lied about his involvement but there were the tapes proving he knew about the affair
  • the resignation of Richard Nixon – the only resignation of a U.S. President to date

 

            Ronald Reagan and Star Wars

  • 1980s
  • the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), also called Star Wars – USA wanted to put defensive shields into the space
  • pressured the Soviet Union to end the Cold War
  • the Falklands War, Reagan didn´t want to help Great Britain in that war but he did
  • American cowboy and Iron lady

 

            Operation Desert Storm

  • 1990
  • Saddam Hussein, the dictator of Iraq, ordered his army across the border into Kuwai
  • multi-national force assembled in Saudi Arabia to defend that nation and to prepare for the liberation of Kuwait
  • an intense aerial campaign against Iraqi targets

 

            Bill Clinton Affair (Lewinsky scandal)

  • a political sex scandal emerging in 1998, from a sexual relationship between Unite States President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky
  • Clinton denied he had any sexual affair with Lewinsky
  • Lewinsky had earlier also denied having such a relationship
  • there was a tape of telephone conversations in which Lewinsky described her involvement with the president

 

            11/9 (terrorist attacks)

  • 2,997 people are killed in the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City, The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia
  • series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed by 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group
  • al-Qaeda took responsibility for these attacks

 

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES

            Benjamin Franklin

  • one of the Founding Fathers of the United States (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Washington)

 

            George Washington

  • the first president of the United States

 

            Woodrow Wilson

  • president during the First World War
  • his idealistic 14 points formed the basis for the League of Nations

 

            Henry Ford

  • the founder of the Ford Motor Company
  • sponsor of the development and mass production

 

            Abraham Lincoln

  • lawyer and later politician
  • the 16th President of the United States
  • the first republican president
  • led the United States through its Civil War
  • shot and killed by the Confederate sympathizer JohnWilkes Booth
  • abolished legal slavery in US

 

            F. Kennedy

  • an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States
  • played a role in diffusing the Cuban missile crisis and the threat of nuclear war
  • assassinated in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald who was arrested that afternoon and charged with the crime that night. Jack Ruby shot and killed Oswald two days later, before a trial could take place

 

            Franklin D. Roosevelt

  • the longest serving US President
  • came to power during the crisis
  • oversaw the US entry into the 2nd World War

 

            Harry Truman

  • the 33rd President of the United States
  • ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities

 

            Martin Luther King, jr.

  • an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement

 

            Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • the 34th President of the United States
  • used nuclear threats to conclude the Korean War with China

 

            Henry Kissinger

  • the 56th United States Secretary of State (today John Kerry)
  • played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977

 

            George Bush jr.

  • president during the 9/11 terrorist attacks, he led a US invasion of Iraq

 

            Barack Obama

  • the first black President
  • current president of the United states

 

Sources

http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/causes_of_the_civil_war.php

http://www.historynet.com/civil-war

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww2/context.html

http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/ilessons/5/ils_gr5a_u8_c17_l1.pdf

http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/lewinsky-scandal.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States

http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States

http://www.usahistory.info/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War

http://www.history.com/topics/great-depression

http://eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/ilessons/5/ils_tn_gr5_u5_c10_l4.pdf






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