London – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (3)

 

Otázka: London

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Lucie

 

 

 

 

General information

–          capital of the UK

–          it is located in the south-east of England on the Thames

–          about 8 million inhabitants

–          the origin of the name is uncertain (nemůžemeurčit)

–          it is divided into: the City of London + 32 other boroughs (čtvrti)

–          it is the seat of: the monarch – Queen, the government – the Cabinet, the Parliament and many other institutions

 

History

–          the area (oblast) has been populated for thousands (s nakonecpřidáváme, pokudnevíme, kolik) of years

–          43 AD – the Romains come

  • they called this place Londinium

–          5th century: Saxons, Romans left forever

–          1066: after the Battle of Hastings – William the Conqueror

–          1665: the Great Plague (=mor) – this epidemic killed about 70000 Londoners (40%)

–          1666: the Great Fire of London

  • the fire stated in Pudding Lane at the baker´s
  • it destroyed 80% of the city
  • only about 10 people died

–          1800: London had 1 mil. inhabitants (the first city with 1 mil. inhabitants in Europe)

–          1851: the Great Exhibition in Crystal Palace (the first world exhibition) in Hyde Park

–          1863: the first underground in the world was opened in London

–          1888: Jack the Ripper → he killed 5-7 prostitutes

–          1900: 6,6 mil. inhabitants

–          1940 – 1945: London was bombed by the Germans

  • Londoners hit in the underground
  • during the war bombing killed about 30000 inhabitants

–          7th July 2005: there was a big terrorist attack

  • 52 people die

Sights

–          Royal buildings

  • The Tower of London
    • it used to be a royal palace, a fortress, a prison and an execution place
    • the oldest part is the White tower built by William the Conqueror
    • the most important part are the Crown jewels
    • two typical symbols:
      • Beefeaters in traditional red uniforms and black hats
      • ravens (havrani)
  • Buckingham palace
    • it was built in 1703 but rebuilt in 1820s
    • the first monarch who lived there was queen Victoria
    • now it is the seat of Queen Elizabeth II.
    • 775 rooms
    • it is used for official invents
    • there is a famous ceremony the Guard (it starts at 11:30)
  • Victoria memorial
  • The Mall – it is a road to Trafalgar square

–          State and government buildings

  • The Houses of Parliament
    • they are located by the Thames in the Palace of Westminster
    • it’s the seat of the House of Commons and the House of Lords
    • the buildings were built in 1840- 1852
    • it was partly destroyed during WWII.
    • Victoria tower
      • there is a Hag (103 m)
      • Clock Town (97 m)
        • the nickname „Big Ben”
        • Big Ben is a bell (13,5 t) – 7 m průměr
        • the sound is used by BBC
        • Parliament square
          • a park with statues of politicians
  • Whitehall
    • it´s a street between Parliament square and Trafalgar square
    • there are government offices and ministries
    • Horse Guards Parade
      • every year there is a ceremony to celebrate monarch´s official birthday
  • Downing Street
    • No. 10 is the seat of the PM

–          Famous squares

  • Trafalgar square
    • it is named after the battle in 1805 in which Admiral Nelson died
    • people celebrate the coming of New Year there
    • Nelson´s Column (sloup)
      • 56 m tall
      • there is a statue of Nelson on the top
      • National Gallery
      • Admiralty Arch
  • Piccadilly Circus (kulaténáměstí)
    • it´s round
    • it is famous for neon advertisements
    • there is a small fountain with the statue of Anteros
  • Leicester square
    • it is a park with famous theatres and cinemas (Odeon)

–          Famous cathedrals and churches

  • Westminster Abby
    • originally founded in the 10th century
    • today´s building comes from the 13th century
    • it´s a coronation place and 17 monarchs are buried (pohřbeno) there
    • a lot of other famous personalities are buried or commemorated (připomínáni) there (e. g. I. Newton, Ch. Dickens)
  • St. Paul´s Cathedral
    • it´s a masterpiece of Cir Christopher Wren
    • it was built after the Great Fire of London (1675 – 1710)
    • there are 3 galleries:
      •  Whispering gallery (indoor)
      • Stone gallery (outdoor)
      • Bolden gallery (outdoor) – beautiful view of London
      • there is a Crypt – tombs of Nelson, Wellington and Sir Christopher Wren

–          Famous bridges

  • Tower Bridge
    • it is located next to the Tower of London
    • the Tower´s 65 m tall (244 long)
    • there is a walkway between the towers
    • the bridge can open in the middle (big ship can go throw)
    • 1894
  • Westminster Bridge
    • between London Eye and the Parliament
  • Millennium Footbridge
    • between St. Paul´s Cathedral and Tate Modern (2000)

–          Famous museums

  • the British Museum
    • opened in the 18th century
    • it was the first national public museum in the world
    • priceless collections from all over the world
      • Rosetta Stone (díkyní se rozluštilyhieroglyfy)
  • Natural History Museum
  • Imperial War Museum
    • HMS Belfast (válečnáloď)
    • Churchill War Rooms
  • Victoria and Albert Museum
  • Science Museum
    • Stevenson´s locomotive (the first)
  • Madame Tussauds
    • wax figures

–          Famous galleries

  • The National Gallery
    • Trafalgar square
  • Tate Modern
    • former (bývalá) power station
    • collections of modern contemporary (současné) art

–          Famous cultural centres

  • Royal Albert Hall
    • it is located by Hyde Park
    • it is an elliptical dome
    • it is used for concert, exhibitions, sports shows, etc.
  • The Royal Opera House
    • it is located in Covent Garden
  • The Globe Theatre
    • it is located by the Thames
    • it is a replica of original Shakespeare´s theatre

–          Famous parks

  • Hyde Park
    • Albert Memorial
      • dedicated to husband of Queen Victoria (55 m)
      • Princess Diana Memorial Fountain
        • it looks like a necklace with flowing water (2004)
        • the 7thJuly Memorial
          • dedicated to the victims (oběti) of the terrorist attack in 2005
          • there are 52 steel pillars (3,5 m each of them)
          • Holocaust Memorial Garden
            • Speakers´ Corner – it is a place where everyone is free to say what they want
            • Marble Arch (mramorovýoblouk)
  • other parks
    • Regent´s Park (ZOO)
    • St. James´ Park
    • Green Park
    • Greenwich Park – the Royal Observatory + Prime Meridian (nultýpoledník)

–          The City

  • the oldest part of London founded by the Romains in the first century AD
  • nowadays one of the world financial centres
    • St. Paul´s Cathedral
    • The Monument
      • column which commemorated the Great Fire of London in 1666
        • it has 61,5 metres
        • the Bank of England (1694)
        • Lloyd´s – one of the biggest insurance
        • the Stock Exchange

–          Other Major Atractions

  • London Eye
    • it´s a giant observation wheel by the Thames (32 capsules, 0,9 km/hod)
  • Wellington Arch (oblouk)
    • dedicated to the Duke (vévoda) of Wellington who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo
  • Cleopatra´s Needle (=jehla – obelisk)
    • it is an Egyptian obelisk by the Thames
    • it´s 3500 years old and 21 m tall
  • „The Gherkin” (=30st Mary Axe)
    • it is a skyscraper 180 m tall
    • it is from glace and steel
  • Canary Wharf (=přístaviště)
    • it is and office and shopping area with the tallest building in the UK called One Canada Square (235 m)
  • The Shard´s Building
    • will be finished this year
    • opposite the Tower by the Thames
  • Baker Street
    • there is the Sherlock Holmes museum
  • The Royal Courts of Justice (královskýsoud)

–          Famous sports grounds

  • Wembley – football and concerts
  • Wimbledon – lawn tennis

–          Shopping

  • Harrods
  • Selfridges – Oxford Street
  • Regent Sheet
  • Bond St
  • Notting Hill
  • Covent Garden






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