Otázka: Milestones and personalities of the British history
The British Isles have a rich history going back thousands of years. I shall divide the period of British history into five main chunks. History is an interweaving of events and people. It is not just about kings and queens, it is about ordinary people and how events influenced them. And it is about situation how influenced events. The Britain is not one nation, so I divide Great Britanie to Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England.
- To the 10thcentury
First person come to Great Britanie from European continent in ice Age. It was islands hard involved in land. About 450 BC came Celts from Europe. In 55 BC came roman Julius Caesar and in 54 appended Britain to Rome imperium. Romans brought Christian faith and Latina.
In 407 Romans retreated before Germanic phyla, which came from north Europe. Original Celtic residents were press to north islands. Christianity there came missionaries in 7th
- 1016 – 1337
In 1016 was England kingdom subjugated Vikings. Power of the nobility was stronger. In 1215 was power of the nobility debilitated. It was expended the Magna Charta. It was charter of rights and freedoms. It resulted to creation parliament. At the end of 20thcentury England kingdom conquered Ireland and was appended Wales.
- 1337 – 1914
In 1337 broke out Hundred years war. It was because of territorial disputes. This war was between England and France. Reason was a dispute about Flanders. War finished in 1453, when Britons lost all French territories, which before the war had. The hundred years war took 116 years.
From 1455 was in England civil war. It was war of the roses. This war was between two clans Lancaster and York. On the England throne acceded clans Tudor ( Henry VIII. ) War finished in 1485. In 1536 was appended Scotland. The gold age economy arises with Elizabeth I. England had strong fleet. Britons began fill on North American continent.
In 1707 were England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales formally merged into the Kingdom of Great Britain.
In the 60s of 18th century England beat France’s colonial wars in India and North America. She became the most powerful colonial power in the world. In 1770 Captain Cook discovered Australia and New Zealand, which increased the colonial territories of the British Empire. In 1775, the North American colonies revolted because of taxes and the subsequent war of independence gained independence in 1783. In subsequent years, Britain was drawn into the Napoleonic wars, when in 1805 defeated the French fleet at Trafalgar and in 1815 contributed significantly to the total Napoleon defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. Britain became a global trading power during the Industrial Revolution.
At the end of the 19thcentury were autonomous such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
- 1914 – 1939
In 1914 acceded Britain to First World War along with France and Russia. They won, but with large losses. In the 30s of 20th century Britain passes the global economic crisis. Her conciliatory policy towards Hitler contributed to the outbreak of Second World War.
- By 1939
9.1939 broke out Second World War. Britanie reflected with theirs aviation Germans invasion, but losses were catastrophic. End of Second World War was in 2.9.1945. The United Kingdom is a member of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO. Since 1973 he is member of the European Community.
- Winston Churchill ( 1874 – 1965 ) – he was British premier. He resulted the United Kingdom in Second World War. He had great oratory and stout opinions. If was convinced of the correctness of his journey, ignored any obstacles.
- Princess Diana ( 1961 – 1997 ) – She was a first wife successor to the British throne prince Charles. She concentrated to the charitable work for the Red Cross. She fought against landmines, visited Bosnia and Angola, and also continued in work in the organization to help people affected by AIDS and children’s charities. She died an automobile accident.
- Charles Darwin ( 1809 – 1882 ) – He was naturalist and founder of evolutionary biology.
- William Shakespeare ( 1564 – 1616 ) – He was a dramatist. He wrote 37 theatre games. About William Shakespeare are a lot of speculations. It speculates, that Shakespeare wasn’t author, but it was non pseudonym Edward de Vere (it was aristocrat). It speculates, that Shakespeare was homosexual or bisexual, because he describe love scene very in detail and to unnamed man. He wrote comedy, tragedy, history game, fairy-tale game.
Example his work: The Taming of the Shrew (Zkrocení zlé ženy) – comedy
Romeo and Juliet – tragedy
Hamlet – tragedy
Macbeth – tragedy
The winter’s tale – romance
- Isaac Newton ( 1643 – 1727 ) – He was England physics and mathematics. Newton described 3 law move and law universally gravity. He was a Christian.
- Elizabeth I. ( 1533 – 1603 ) – She was a queen England and Ireland by 17.11.1558. She was of clan Tudor. She was pig-headed and charismatics queen. It was period stability. This period call gold age.
- Oliver Cromwell ( 1599 – 1658 ) – He was once of military generals, who contributed to loss kingly military in civil war. Sometimes is indicated as dictator and king killer or as pro free.
- James Cook ( 1728 – 1779 ) – He was seafarer.
- Charles Dickens ( 1812 – 1870 )
- Francis Drake ( 1540 – 1596 )
- Richard the Lion heart ( about 1300 )