Prague – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (3)

 

Otázka: Prague

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): krejx

 

 

 

 

BASIC

–          the capital of the Czech Republic – since 1918

–          the largest – area: 500 km2

–          situated in the centre of Bohemia

–          the river Vltava flows there

–          1,2 mil inhabitants

–          the heart of Europe

–          Golden Prague, the mother of citiesPrague of hundred spires

–          in teh middle ages – a big important city during the reign of the king Charles IV.

–          the old centre consists of 5 historical districts

  • The Old Town
  • The New Town
  • the Jewish town
  • The Lesser quarter
  • Hradčany

–          political centre of the country – seat of the president (Prague castle), government, parliament

–          economic centre – The Czech National Bank, international companies

–          educational and cultural centre of the Czech Rep. (the best universities, museums, art galleries,…)

 

HISTORY

–          an exceptional city because of its history and monuments

–          founded in the 6th century by Slavs – they built a market on a crossroad of trade routes near the ford over the Vltava – it became a seat of Premyslid Prices, czech ings, later Romans emperors

–          it is said that in ancient times, princess Libuše foretold future glory of the city (told that the future glory of Prague would touch the stars)

–          9th century – became the capital of Bohemia and after the capital of the Czech Kingdom

–          During the reign of Charles IV. – Prague has Golden Age (the biggest on the continent) –  the most important period of our history

  • founded Charles University (1348), Charles bridge (30 statues), Hungry wall, The new Town, St. Vitus Cathedral, The horse market (now the Wenceslas square)

–          another famous period – the reign of Rudolf II.

  • invited many artists and scientist to prague
  • during this time the Golden Lane was built for Rudolf´s artists and craftsmen (there worked Franz Kafka)

–          1918 – the capital of the Czechoslovak Republic – T.G.M.

–          1989 – Velvet revolution – until this we were under the reign of communistic party

–          1993 – the capital of the Czech Republic

 

TRANSPORT

–          Train – 2 central stations

  • Main station – after reconstruction, problém of homeless
  • Masaryk railway station – named after the first czechoslovakpresident
  • Other stations –

–          underground since 1974, the net of buses and trams (quite good and not expensive use it to avoid traffic jam)

–          airport: Ruzyně – Václav a Havla

–          boat – have a trip on the river Vltava

–          taxi – expensive, not quick baceuse of traffic jam, it!s a risk – drivers often cheat

PLACES OF INTEREST

–          if you visit Prague, you can follow the Royal route to see the most famous monuments

–          PRAGUE CASTLE

  • lies in Hradčany
  • monumental complex of buildings
  • the seat of czech kings and presidents, Barack Obama had a speech there
  • one of the biggest inhabited castles in the world
  • large gothic Vladislav Hall
    • in the middle ages: coronations of the kings
    • now there is a election of the president
    • used for representative purposes
  • St. Vitus cathedral
    • stands near the castle
    • built in gothic style by Mathias of Arras
    • the crown jewels are in the Chapel
    • the construction of the building lasted 6 centuries
  • Golden lane
    • some of houses have been changed to the shops
    • legend – there live done alchemist who tryed again and again to make gold but he never succeeded

–          CHARLES UNIVERSITY

  • 1348, the oldest university in central Europe

–          ST. NICOLAS CHURCH

  • 2 churchs with the same name – one in the Lesser quarter and the other one on the Old town square
  • example of baroque architecture, built by the Dientzenhofers

–          THE CHARLES BRIDGE (1357)

  • 516m long, 10m wide
  • Over the river Vltava
  • Built by Charles IV. When Judita’s bridge was torn down by the flood
  • usually crowded by tourists, lots of artists and musicians
  • an open-air gallery of unique 30 baroque statues by Brown and Brokoff (the statue of Jan Nepomuk turns your dreams into reality)
  • the builders added eggs to the mortar to make a strong substance to hold the bridge together
  • on the both ends of bridge – bridge towers

–          THE OLD TOWN SQUARE

  • The oldest square – 12th century
  • In the center is monument of Hus
  • another significant historical spot
  • Kinsky palace = national gallery, collection of modern art, Stone Bell House
  • the Old town hall with world-famous astronomical clocks
  • ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS
    • Orloj – by master Hanuš
    • Every hour between 9.00 and 21.00 small statues of the 12 apostles appear in small windows at the top of the clock
    • The place where 27 czech noblemens were executed

–          THE WENCESLAS SQUARE

  • The largest (750m long), the most imortant square
  • heart of new town
  • famous for the statue of St. Wenceslas on the horse (patron of Bohemia) – made by Myslbek
  • surrounded by fastfoods, shops, hotels, restaurants, cafés,, many people who sell their products
  • demonstrations, celebrations
  • The National museum
    • upper end / on the top of the square
    • historical and natural collections, exposition of history, archeology, arcitecture, evolution

–          THE NATIONAL THEATRE

  • situated near the Vltava
  • in music video of Kanye West
  • built in 1881, rebuilt after fire in 1883
  • history: people wanted to have their own theatre for czech plays, dramas, operas so they collected money, it burned down after its opening – they built it again

–          THE PETŘÍN HILL

  • „hill of love“ – the place for lovers
  • 60 meter-tall viewing tower on the hill with 299 steps
  • Built as a copy of the Eiffel Tower in Paris
  • large gardens
  • mirror labyrinth, observatory

–          THE OLD JEWISH TOWN

  • for the history of Prague the Jewish community was very important
  • most of the town was damaged by German during WWII.
  • 6 synagogues
  • the Old-New synagogue – the oldest one
  • the Old Jewish cemetery – buried Rabi Low – according to the legend he invented Golem

–          PARIS STREET

  • Expensive shops

–          KAMPA

  • Famous area near Charles bridge
  • Separated by small canal – called Čertovka
  • Go there for a walk, jogging, with children/dog
  • Legend about non-human creature from Kampa
  • Eiffel tower – 5 times smaller
  • From Kampa we can go to Patřín Hill, Strahov stadium, Letná field

–          VYŠEHRAD

  • the oldest castle, built on the rock
  • Slavín cemetery where czech writers, artists, rich people are buried
  • Czech Princess Libuše prophesied the glory from here

 

SPORT

–          O2 arena






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