Science and industry – maturitní otázka


  Otázka: Science and industry

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Tereza



From the beginning of people´s existence they have used tools, various types of energy and materials, because they wanted to improme everything in the world. Almost every human process for getting food and shelter depends on technological systems. At present, modern industry depends on power, materials, machinery and production process.



In 18th centrury was developed first working steam engine by James Watt. The steam engine and other advances made posiible the repleacement of tradicional agrarian economy by one dominated machinery and manufacturing. This steam angine was originally developed for draining mines but then was put to use in factories and on the railways and hand-made products were replaced by machine-made products which increased number of products and also made the tansportation faster. In second half of the 18th century was in sign of Industrial revolution, it started technical and economic development in Great Britain and transfered the balance of political power from the landowner to the industrial capitalist and created an urban working class.

Electricity was avaible from the early 1880s and was used for electric motors, which powered all kinds of machinery and for lighting and also for an electric bulb invented by Thomas A. Edison in 1879. Electricity is one of most convenient for of energy and it can be generated in one place (power stations) and distributed anywhere, because it flows throught wires.



Plenty of inventions and discoveres have influenced our lifes, such asi radio, television, telephone, photographs, computers – but this is just equipment, which make our lifes more comfortable and it is also source of our fun and tools for spending our free time. But especially in this time we can´t live without them – all of us use computer and mobile telephones every day, many hours, we work on them and we become accustomed to have it in hands. But of course, sometimes people spend so much time on their mobiles or computers, connected on social networks like Facebook instead of going out with friends and they loose their social contact. And these devices are going to be improve and who knows, what are we going to have in our lives in 30 years. Many things could be better, but there is also threat, that our kids won´t have childhood in parks and nature.

But also there are many important tools, which can save our life – many medical devices like EKG, X-ray and also other discoveries of medicines – penicilin, vitamins…


Many inventios were appreciated by the Nobel Price – especially it relates for science – chemistry and physics.
One of the most famous apprecieted women was in 1903 Marie Curie Sklodowska. She get the Nobel price for chemistry and physics – for research of radiational effects and then for discovery of Radium and Polonium. She had hard conditios – small equipment of laboratory not much menas for researches and so on. Working with radioactive materials caused her disease and she died for her life research.


Space flights present a special application of modern technology and science. The first sattelites were launched into orbit around Earth in 1957 by the Russians and soon the first man-operated spacecraft was put into orbit. In 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the firts human in space abroat the spacecraft. In a few years manned missions to the Moon were achieved, the first being Apollo 11. The first people to step onto the Moon in 1969 were Neil Armstrong and Edwi Aldrin.
At presentartificial satellites are used for scientic purposes, communications, weather forecastung and military purposes.


Many scientific-technical things solve our problems and are the most important for us. But we also have to protect our enviroment, find the way how to feed the constantly increasing number of people, how to to solve famine and how to cure some diseases. Maybe one day scientists will find the cure for cancer or AIDS or Ebola virus.
Also there is some danger od inovations and inventions – in this time especially extra powerful laser weapons, nuclear bombs and other…
Technology is depend upon how people use it and how are new inventions introduced into life.

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