Science and technology – maturitní otázka (2)

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  Otázka: Science and technology

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Kateřina

 

 

Science and technology are really important parts of our lives. I think no one can imagine living without technologies we have now. But it wasn’t easy and quick to have life this easy because of technology and science. The development of science and technology is as old as mankind.

 

The birth of technology

  • The birth of technology was about 2 million years before Christ when Homo habilis made sharp cutting edges from stone. Then Homo neanderthals made and used more weapons and useful tools.
  • Then the metals were a big discovery. 6500 years BC lead (Pb) was found and then 3000 years later copper (Cu).
  • The wheel became the most important, useful invention. It made a lot of things easier. Wheels had really rapid development and they are considered as the longest used invention and had the biggest influence on the development of technology.

 

The first industrial revolution (1760 – 1840)

  • In this era, the steam power was a major technological progress. The inventor is James Watt, he made and improved steam engines. Then George Stephenson constructed a steam locomotive called Rocket.  It was the first locomotive which could ride long distances and this led to building more railways.

 

The second industrial revolution (to 1945)

  • In the 19th century, Thomas Edison improved electric light bulbs. A lot of people think he invented it but he only perfected it. His light bulbs lasted for hundreds of hours, which was much longer than other ones. They were also cheaper.
  • In 1876 the device used for talking to someone who is practically anywhere was invented. Now, we know this device under the name telephone.
  • In this era, big accomplishments were rockets and space flights. The earliest rockets were invented in China in the 11th century but in the 19th century the rockets were much improved. Knowledge of astronomy really helped to make good rockets like these. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was the first person to think about space stations and he even drew their plans. He figured out how to and how quick to leave the atmosphere. The first Russians put a man into orbit. It was Yuri Gagarin in 1961. Then NASA accomplished landing on the moon in 1969.

 

The third technical and scientific revolution (1945 to nowadays)

  • After the Second World War, many new discoveries and accomplishments in science and technology were made. In 1945 the first electronic computer was invented and it could solve mathematical problems. But the computer did not look like we are used to. It fitted into one whole room. In the 1960s microprocessors were invented so computers could be a lot smaller.
  • The World Wide Web was created and it makes our lives much easier every day. We have access to billions of documents, images, information, we can shop online and even communicate all the time. Mobile phones became smaller and more powerful.
  • It is amazing what science and technology gave us. It makes our lives easier and I think even much freer. When I look back at what mankind could invent and make, I am looking forward to the next incredible inventions.


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