Otázka: Přehled anglických maturitních otázek
Přidal(a): Radomír Gálíček
F. L. Wright
Thought that American architecture should be based on American function, not European tradition. Since 1900 he completed prairie houses – low buildings with shallow roofs, overhangs and terraces, and open planning inside. (Robie House, Willits House). Unity Temple in Oak Park is the first church of reinforced concrete. In Organic Style (close to the natural surroundings) are Falling water and Taliesin West. Guggenheim Museum in New York is a beige spiral on Fifth Avenue. He built skyscrapers that mimicked trees.
Comes from Manchester, studied Yale School of Architecture. His breakthrough building was the Willis Building at Ipswich. He designed a landmark structure 30St.Mary Axe (Gherkin), the London headquarters for Swiss Re. In 2004 he designed the tallest bridge in the world, the Millau Viadukt in southern France (343 m). From the cupola of the Reichstag in Berlin you can enjoy views of Berlin and look down into the debating chamber below.
Studied under Jan Kotěra at the Prague School of Applied Arts. He started with Cubism ( House at the Black Madona, spa komplex in Bohdaneč) and Rondocubism (Czechoslovak Legions Bank Na Poříčí). Later he adopted the Functionalist approach to architecture (Grammar School in Hradec Králové). Church of St.. Wencelaus dominates the square in Vršovice. He made good use of the slope terrain with the stepped nave and a Slender tower at the entrance, all in reinforced concrete.
Was a Slovene architekt who practised in Vienna (studied under Otto Wagner), Prague and Ljubljana. In 1911 he moved to Prague where taught at the College of Arts. In 1920 he began to work on the Prague Castle. He renovated Paradise Garden. It was connected to the Hradčany Square by a monumental staircase, added were important elements – a basin, columns, terraces and a pyramid. Plečnik Hall was completed in 1930 with three levels of Doric collonades. Church of the Most Sacred Heart of Our Lord is his greatest Prague work. It is like an old basilica with a single nave and a coffered ceiling. It has a masive flat tower with a gigantic clock.
Romanesque (Norman) and Gothic
Romanesque style (till mid 13th century) is mostly represented by sacred architecture – basilica (a rectangular church oriented to the east with a central nave higher than the side aisles and lit by rouded double windows under the roof, often with a triple apse) and a circular rotunda. Masive walls were of regular cut ashlars.
Examples: St. Georges basilica, basilica in Milevsko, St. Martin’s rotunda, Durham
Gothic cathedrals were on the ground plan of the Latin cross and stepped eastern choir. Then they had butress system, groin vaulting and twin-towered fasade. Portal and windows were of pointed arch. They were airy to give them spirit. Gothic is divided into : early, decorative and perpendicular.
Examples: St. Agnes convent, St. Vitus and St. Barbara’s Cathedrals, Sedlec, GB: Salisbury, Canterbury, Cambridge – King’s College chapel
In the 16th century main principles were taken from classical Greece and Rome. Verticality was replaced by the horizontál division and arcades with columns (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian).Gables were above the cornice. Portals were shaping the entrance. Scratched plaster was in the shape of envelopes or figural scenes (sgrafitto). Chateaux and cities were built.
After 30 years war the reconstruction served to the revival and recatholization of the country. Art is dynamic and emotional, full of faith and based on classical principles. From early Baroque buildings is unique Wallenstein Palace by Andrea Spezza and Knights of the Cross Church by J. B. Mathey. High Baroque architects are Fischer von Erlach (Clam Gallas Palace), Dientzerhofer family (St. Nicolaus church, Loreto), J.B. Santini-Aichel (pilgrimage church of Jan Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou, and Baroque Gothic – Kladruby, Želiv, Sedlec)
Czech Modern Architecture
Started with Secessionism (Art Noveau). Osvald Polívka designed the Municipal House and Palaces Topič and Praha. Josef Fanta designed Prague Main Station in a horseshoe plan with towers with sculptures by Sucharda. Greatest protagonist of modernity is Josef Kotěra. Decoration he reduced to minimum with emphasis on the interior. Pure examples of modernism are his own house and the City Museum in Hradec Králové. Pavel Janák used reinforced concrete in the Hlávka bridge. His Palace Adria is inspired by the Renaissance of Northern Italy with Štursa sculptures. Crematorium in Pardubice is in the National style. Josef Chochol was most radical cubist – buildings in Vyšehrad. After 1948, e. g. Broadcasting tower on Ještěd by Hubáček.
The Czech Republic and Its Monuments
Area 78,864 sq km, 10.33 million inhabitants. Ring of mountains – Šumava, the Giant Mountains …, lowlands in vallies of rivers – the Vltava, Elbe …Continental climate. History – Czech kingdom flourished during the reign of Charles IV. The 19th century brought the national revival.
Beer production, St. Bartholomew´s Cathedral with the highest spire. Karlovy Vary – most important spa with hot springs. Kutná Hora with silver deposits and St. Barbara‘s cathedral. Český Krumlov – important historical town reserve with a castle above. Brno – Engineering Trade fair and Špilberk castle. Karlštejn with the Chapel of the Holy Cross and medieval paintings. On the UNESCO list are: the historical centre of Prague, Český Krumlov, Kutná Hora, Olomouc, Třebíč and Telč; Litomyšl,Kroměříž and Lednice-Valtice castles, The Pilgrimage Church of Jan Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou; villa Tugendhat in Brno by Mies van der Rohe, village in folk baroque Holašovice.
Prague and its Castle
Prague is the capital. The Prague Castle , the seat of the president, is the dominant of the city. It includes 3 courtyards and from hundreds of rooms the late Gothic Vladislav Hall, Spanish Hall are used for ceremonial purposes. The most impressive building is St. Vitus Cathedral. The most admired part is St. Wenceslaus Chapel, decorated with semi-precious stones , and the coronation chamber (crown, sceptre and orb). Another place worth seeing is Schwarzenberg Palace, now containing collections of the Baroque art. In the Royal Gardens there are the Royal Summer palace Belvedere and the Ballroom by B. Wohlmut. Černín Palace is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Loretto has a carillon in the steeple. The Strahov Monastery, a living place of pilgrimage, is a Museum of Czech literature. Petřín observation tower is a free copy of the Eiffel tower. In the Lesser Town there is St. Nicolas Church. Charles Bridge is over the Vltava. Well known are Old Town Square and Wenceslaus Square.
The Design Process
Building designers prepare a set of construction documents and the preliminary construction budget. Then they presents rough scetches of the site plan, floor plans and exterior elevations. Elevations are drawings of the side, front or rear of the house. The preliminary drawings have to be approved by the local building office and they are important for the client. Then the designer creates scaled drawings (scales include 1 : 50, or 100) and final detailed drawings, which are necessary for receiving the building permission. The designer helps the client to select doors and windows and prepares detailed drawings of floors and sections. Hardwood, tiles, plumbing materiál, electrical fixtures are available in a wide quality range. Houses can be or detached, semi-detached or terraced. Design process: Cost estimate, rough scetches, situation or site plan, floor plans, scaled drawings.
The oldest dwellings were made of stone and wood. Rocks are or firm – stone – or loose – sand or gravel. The main advantages of stone are durability, fire and frost resistence and beauty. Disadvantages are weight, difficult workability and thermal flow. Types are limestone, sandstone, slate, granite or marble. We use them for paving, flooring, tiling, roof tiles …Wood used for civil engineering is called timber. Beech, oak, elm, birch are hardwoods, together with exotic mahagony, balsy, ebony …Spruce, fir, pine, larch are softwoods, They make up 80% of the world´s production of timber.
Bricks, tiles and cement are some of the most popularly used constructing materials. There are clay bricks and concrete bricks used for constructing homes and offices. Concrete: As time passed, wood was replaced with the use of concrete. Concrete is a mixture made of cement and fly ash. It is widely used to build strong structures even today.Metals: Metal structures are strong and durable. Aluminum, steel and iron are some of the most widely used building materials. Another significant construction material includes glass. Huge glass mansions are quite popular nowadays. Plastic is one of the most versatile materials available on earth. Plastic pipes, tubes and sheets are widely used to build homes and apartments.
The United Kingdom
250,000 sq km, 60 mil people, London, Queen Elizabeth II is the head, anthem: God Save the Queen
Mountanious is Scotland, England is flat apart from the Lake District.
History: Celts, Romans (Hadrian´s Wall), Angles and Saxons, William the Congueror – Normans.
Henry VIII of Tudor – 6 wives, established Church of England, Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria, Winston Churchil.
Geography: Southeast – Kent, Canterbury Cathedral; Southwest – Stonehenge, Salisbury Cathedral; East Anglia – Cambridge, The Midlands – Birmingham, Manchester – Black Country, Stratford upon Avon (Shakespeare), Oxford University+ Borders – industrial Newcastle, York Minster.
Interesting Places in the UK
UNESCO sites in the UK:
Stonehenge – stone circle from the neolitic era, Hadrian´s Wall – built 122 AD by Romans and is 118 km long, City of Bath – old Roman spa, Tower of London – Norman military architecture, later prison, now houses Crown Jewels, Westminster Abbey – cathedral of coronation and burials of English Kings, Canterbury Cathedral – Spiritual head of the Church of England, a site of pilgrimage, Durham Castle and Cathedral – Norman and early Gothic, Edinburgh – medieval fortress and Scottish capital, Conwy and Caernarfon – castles in Wales, inspired by crusaders, Blenheim Palace, belonged to the Churchil family, example of Baroque
London and its Architecture
Is the 9th largest city in the world with 10 mil inhabitants. Many places of interest and oldest underground. The Houses of Parlament are gothic, after 1840. The only old there is Westminster Hall. Clock tower Big Ben. Whitehall is the street with government Office and horse parades. Downing Street 10 is the home of Prime Ministers. Westminster Abbey (11th century)- place of coronation and burials. St. Paul is in the City. Renaissance dome is by Christopher Wren (whispering gallery). The Tower served as a royal palace, later prison, now museum with crown jewels and beefeters. Tower Bridge is a symbol of London. National Gallery is on the Trafalgar square (column with the statue of Admirál Nelson). The British Museum is the largest museum in the world, Buckingham Palace is the Queen´s residence. Shopping centres – Piccadily Circus and Oxford Street. Hyde and St. James´s Parks.
Area: 9,372,600 sq km; population: 306,100,000; a nation of immigrants (English, Irish, German …)
Reliéf: Eastern Highland – the Appalachians, The Atlantic Plain, Western Highland – Rocky Mountains, Alaska – Mt. McKinley (6,194 m)
Rivers: St. Lawrence from Great Lakes, The Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, the Colorado to the Pacifik
History: 1492 Ch. Columbus lands in the Bahamas, 1776, 4/7 Declaration of Independence, 1860 – 65 Civil War, 1787 Constitution
Regionalism: Pacific West ( Washington, California, LA, San Francisco), Rocky Mountains States ( Wyoming, Utah, National Parks), Midwest Region (Dakota, Illinois, Bread Basket and wheat belt in rich prairie soil), South West (Arizona, Texas, Spanish population, cattle), South (Louisiana, Florida, negro spirituáls, racial prejudices), Mid-Atlantic States (Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Washington), New England ( Massachusetts, .. Boston, settled by English protestants)
American Cities, New York, Washington
New York – is the largest city and Manhattan is the financial centre of the world. There are 5 boroughs (Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island and Manhattan – divided by the Hudson River, the East River and the Harlem River. Most streets go from East to West, avenue from north to south. Broadway is the only exception ( Lincoln centre for the Arts with the Metropolitan Opera), on the Fifth Avenue there are St. Patrick´s Cathedral, Rockeffeler´s Center, Central Park and Guggenheim Museum; on the south there is the Empire State Building; (Statue of Liberty you can reach by boat.)
Washington – the White House is the seat of the president and the Capitol building is where the American Congress resides. The National Mall is a beautiful are filled with monuments – Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial and the Smithsonian, made up of 19 museums.
Chicago is home to Willis tower, formely known as Sears Tower. This 442-m skyscraper was the world´s tallest building until 1998. California has many popular cities – LA is known for Hollywood, San Francisco draws tourists to landmarks such as the Golden Gate Bridge, historic cable cars and Alcatraz Island. Las Vegas in Nevada is famous for its huge casinos. Houston is home to NASA´s Center, Dallas to cowboys and museum of the assassination of J. F. Kennedy. For New Orleans is typical jazz music, Atlanta has museum to Coca-Cola.
Area 7,692,000 sq km, Population 17 mil, capital Canberra, unofficial anthem: Waltzing Matylda
A federal state consisting of 6 states and 2 territories ( New South Wales – Sydney /Opera House, Harbour Bridge/, Victoria – Melbourne). Discovered by the Dutch and Captain Cook, The Settlement began on 26th January 1788, with the arrival of convicts from Britain. Aborigines (Ayers Rock or Uluru is a sacred ground) were frightened away. Many deserts. Animals: Kangaroo, koala, platypus.
The density of population in New Zealand is much higher. Its area is 268,812 sq km and the population is 3,389,000. The official tongue is English
It is to be found south-east of Australia. It consists of two large islands, The North and the south one, which are mainly mountainous. Mount Cook in the Southern Alps is 3,764 m high.. The climate is very pleasant all the year round. Its capital is Wellington. Other large cities are Auckland (N) and Christchurch (S).
The first inhabitants were Maoris of Polynesian origin. Today they represent about 9 per cent of the population..
Canada – with of almost 10 million sq km is the second largest country in the world. Population – 32 mil.
It is divided into 10 provinces and two territories:
|Quebec – Quebec||Alberta – Edmonton|
|Ontario – Toronto||British Columbia – Victoria|
Its capital is Ottawa, Ontario. Other chief cities include Montreal, the second largest French-speaking city in the world, and Toronto, the capital of Ontario, with the tallest freestanding structure, Canadian Tower (533 m). Quebec, with 18th century fortification – the Citadel, built in the shape of star, and Chateau Frontenac Hotel.
Visitors are eager to see Niagara Falls which are to be found between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. The Canadian Fall is called the Horseshoe Fall and is 49 m high and almost 1 km wide. There are about 30 NPs, one of them being Jasper in Alberta (Rocky Mountains). The climate is mostly continental. Winter temperature in the north fall to minus 50 degrees of centigrade. Since 1965 it has its own national flag: red maple leaf on the white ground.
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