Terrorism

 

Otázka: Terrorism

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Kuku

 

 

 

 

 

What is terrorism?

If you thought terrorism was just brutal, mindless violence, you would be wrong. There is almost always a strategy behind terrorist actions and whatever form it takes – bombings, shootings, hijackings, or assassinations – it is never random, spontaneous, or blind. Terrorism contains the following key elements

it is premeditated

it is political

it is aimed at civilians

it is carried out by sub-national groups

Terrorism is not a new phenomenon. We know about it in first-century Palestine, in the eleventh-century Middle East, in late nineteenth-century organization. The 1st WW was also triggered by an act of terrorism.

Another characteristic feature of terrorist acts is that they are often deliberately spectacular, designed to shock and influence a wide audience. The aim is to use the psychological impact of violence or of the threat of violence to cause political change.

 

Tuesday September 11, 2001

According to the official 9/11 Commission Report, nineteen men affiliated with Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, a network of Sunni Islamist terrorists, simultaneously hijacked four US domestic aeroplanes. Two were crashed into the World Trade Center in Manhattan, NY City – one into each of two tallest towers. Both tower collapsed as a result. The third aeroplane was crashed into the US Department of Defence headquarters, the Pentagon, in Arlington County, Virginia. The fourth plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania, following passenger resistance.

The official count records 2,986 deaths in the attacks including the hijackers.

 

Suicide Terrorism

People often talk of the new suicide terrorism, but the phenomenon is not really new at all. Throughout history most terrorism has been extremely risky for the terrorists themselves. In the past, terrorists attacked using nothing but a dagger, and unless their victims were alone and defenceless, the terrorists were as much in danger as their victims.

Earlier, extremely unstable bombs that had to be thrown from a short distance were used. In the 20th century, the development of more sophisticated weapons in the twentieth century allowed terrorists to kill from a distance. This made attacks less risky. But suicide terrorism has re-emerged in the last two decades as a favoured tactic of certain terrorist groups. Suicide terrorism generates a lot of fear and allows the terrorists to execute accurate, large-scale attacks without sophisticated technology.

 

A Date with Death

11/3/2004

a series of coordinated terrorist bombing against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain

killed 191 people, wounded 1,460

7/7/2005

a series of four bomb attacks struck the London’s public transport system during the morning rush hour

killed 56 people, injured 700

Police investigators identified four men whom they believed to be suicide bombers. It has been planned by Islamist paramilitary organizations based in the United Kingdom. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.

21/6/2005

a series of four explosions took place on the London Underground and a London bus

only the detonators of the bomb exploded

no deaths

all suspected bombers were subsequently arrested by police

 

Bullying

William Cobbett School

What is bullying?

Bullying is the deliberate, conscious desire to hurt, threaten or frighten someone.

It can be physical, such as hitting, prodding and pushing

It can be verbal: nicknames, racist or sexist taunts, personal comments. Students who are new, or different, may be vulnerable. (Verbal bullying is often the most common form in schools).

It can be non-verbal, such as taking sweets or money, or damaging equipment.

 

Signs of being bullied: how to recognise it

Children becoming distressed, not sleeping, not eating, being withdrawn.

Children unwilling to come to school (stomach aches or headaches).

Missing equipment for which there is no explanation.

Children making an unusual request for extra money.

Bruising, or damaged clothing.

Change of friendships.

 

What can you do if you are being bullied?

Inform a teacher immediately. Victims often believe that bullying cannot be stopped or they are frightened of what will happen if they tell. This is understandable, but wrong. We can act sensitively, and bullying can be stopped when we are told about it.

Keep a written record or diary of the bullying (who/what/where/when).

Do not hit back. It will only make matters worse and could blur the real issue.

 

How can you help us to help you?

Provide us with details: in order to get away with it, bullies need opportunities.

Trust us. We know what to do if we have the right information.

Support us. Both victims and bullies need help to prevent damage to their self-esteem, which can have a bad effect later in life.

 

Crime

Categories of crime

We can divide crimes into offences:

against people (murder,assault,pickpocketing)

against property (loot, steal,burgle)

against public or public morality (blackmail,smuggle)

 

Classification of crime

economic crime

political crime

crime of passion

organized crime

white-collar crime

computer crime

 

Offences

Statutory offences are minor offences that are tried by magistrates. Statutory offences aresuch as swindle or bribe.

Indictable offences includes such major crimes as arson, assault, burglary, kidnapping,murder, rape, robbery and theft

 

Crimes

Murder – killing someone intentionally.

Rape – forcing a woman or a man to have sex.

Burglary – breaking into a house and stealing something.

Manslaughter – killing someone by accident.

Blackmail – making a person pay money under threat of secret or dangerous informationbeing leaked.

Mugging – attacking someone to steal from them.

Assault – hitting another person deliberately.

Shoplifter -stealing things in a shop.

Bribery – offering or accepting money for doing something dishonest.

Kidnapping – capturing a person and demanding ransom for their safe return.

Perjury – lying to the court.

Robbery – stealing from a person or a place.

Forgery – making illegal copies of paintings, copyrighted documents etc.

Smuggling – bringing goods into the country illegally.

Hijacking – taking control of an occupied car, plane or boat by force.

 

Against property

verb

criminal

crime

 

rob

robber

robbery

v bance

burgle

burglar

burglary

v domě

mug

mugger

mugging

naulici

shoplift

shoplifter

shoplifting

v obchodě

steal

pickpocket

pickpocketing

kapsář

steal

thief -> thieves

theft (petty)

obecně

smuggler

smuggler

smuggling

pašování

vandalise

vandal

vandalism

vandalismus

terrorism

terrorist

terrorism

terorismus

loot

looter

looting

rabování

set fire to/sb on fire

arsonist

arson

žhářství

 

Against people

verb

criminal

crime

 

assault

assailant

assault

útok, napadení

rape

rapist

rape

znásilnění

hijack

hijacker

hijack/ing

únosletadla

kidnap

kidnapper

kidnapping

únososoby

blackmail

blackmailer

blackmail

vydírání

Economics

verb

criminal

crime

 

bribe

briber

bribery

úplatky

fake

fake

fake

falšovat

forge

forger

forgery

falšovat

swindle

swindler

swindle

podvod

embezzle

embezzler

embezzlement

zpronevěra

 

Homicide

verb

criminal

crime

 

kill

killer

killing

murder

murderer

murder

assassinate

assassin

assassination

Duties of the police

arresting and questioning crime suspects

providing evidence to the court

taking statements from witnesses

helping find missing people

patrolling streets to prevent crimes

ensuring safety on the roads

directing traffic

 

Vocabulary

Prohibition

illegal, prohibited, banned, forbidden – zakázán

Indictment

be accused of…/be charged with…

to blame sb for sth

acquitted

take pity on sb

be released

suspect sb

investigate

to prove


find sb guilty X innocent

provide proof of sth/give evidence

commit a crime (committed)

be arrested by the police for…

obey/observe/follow the law

break the law

defend

prosecute for

 

Punishment

they are punished by…

long term imprisonment

life imprisonment

to sentence to 5 years impr.

death penalty/capital punishment


community service

convicted of…

intentionally/on purpose/deliberately

by accident/by chance






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