The Commonwealth of Australia

 

Otázka: The Commonwealth of Australia

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): vanessas

 

 

 

 

 

Intro  – a continent, the smallest one, about 7.5 mill. km2,
in the Southern Hemisphere, 2 oceans, … , smtms the termOceania (Australasian ecozone) is used.

– a state, 6 states +  2  territories.Canberra –  the capital city with a population of 367k (in 2013)

– national symbolsanthem: God Save the Queen, flag: Commonwealth Blue Ensign (Union Jack + 1big
Commonwealth star + 5 little stars)

Geography – a flat country,  few mountains – the Australian Cordilleras in the east, the Austr. Alps in the south-east with
the highestmountainMt. Kosciusco –2,230 m high, good for  skiing, nearCanberra)

– about 80% is dry outback – deserts (in the west), semi deserts, savannahs

– 2 great rivers (the Murray, the Darling), 3 great lakes, which become dry in the dry seasons

– tropical forests in the northern east

– the subtropical area in the south-east is the best for living – Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane

Climate – tropical in the north

– hot and dry inside the continent

– subtropical in the south

Nature  – special animals, e.g. marsupials (kangaroo, wombat,…), koala bear,
platypus, Tasmanian devil, few original predators (dingo)

intruders – rabbit, fox, frog, camel,  – they damage Australian animals

– interesting plants – eucalyptus, tea tree, ..

Population – almost 20 million inhabitants, most speak English

– many minorities, e.g. the Aborigines, Chinese

History – the Aborigines (1 million before white people came) have lived there for 40,000 years

– Marco Polo mentioned the existence of Australiain the 13th century

– 17th c – first Europeans inAustralia

– 18th c – James Cook claimed New South Wales as a British colony (in 1770), convicts came

– 19th c – more British colonies inAustralia, the gold rush

– 20th c – the role of Australian soldiers in WWI, WWII,Australia became a developed country

State system – a former British colony, then dominion (a self-governing colony or autonomous state within the
British Empire
), now an independent democratic state – official head of state is still British Queen
(the Governor General – deputy to the British Queen – Quentin Bryce 2013

the executive (the part of a government that is responsible for making certain that laws and decisions are put into action) comprises the Prime Minister (Julia Gillard 2013) , Cabinet (council of ministers),  the Federal Parliament,

Culture  Sights – e.g. Ayers Rock (see Blueprint Two), …

Industry – a developed industrial country

Agriculture – cattle, breeding sheep in farms

Popular sport –rugby, cricket, golf, surfing,…

 

Canberra, founded in 1913. It is a very modern city . the seat of the Government and the Federal Parliament and there is the Captain Cook Memorial Waterjet – 134 metres high. In Canberra there is a 250 000 inhabitants.

            Melbourne is the most elegant city . It has beautiful parks, museums, galleries, concert halls and three universities. There is Captain Cook´s cottage too. It is the capital of Victoria and the second largest city. It has 2,5 million inhabitants. In 1956 it was the venue of Summer Olympics.

            Sydney is the oldest city, founded in 1788 as a convict colony. It is the largest city in Australia (over 3 million inhabitants) and the capital of New South Wales. The most important sights in Sydney are the Opera House and the Harbour Bridge.

            Brisbane is situated to the east. It is the capital of Queensland and the third largest city. Brisbane lies on the threshold of the tropics. There is textile, chemical industry, food factories, oil refineries, engineering works and paper mills. Surfers´paradise: Gold coast. (skyskrapers on the beach)

Adelaide is situated in the south. It is the capital of South Australia. The fourth largest city has two universities and the biggest car factory. Adelaide Festival of Arts is held there every year.

Perth is situated on the West Coast. It is the capital of Western Australia, and an industrial city with an important port.

Darwin, the capital of Northern Territory, was completely destroyed by cyclone Tracy in 1974. That’s why it was completely rebuilt.

Alice Springs is the geographical centre of Australia and an important attraction for tourists.






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