Otázka: The Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country, which is situated in central Europe. It is said that it lies in the heart of Europe. The CR shares borders with four states. In the north, it borders Poland and in south Austria. The shortest border is with Slovakia in the east and the longest with Germany in the west. It covers an area of 79 000 square km and has about 10,5 million inhabitants. The major ethnic groups are Czechs and the others are Slovaks, Romanees, Russians and Vietnamese. The capital city is Prague. The local currency is the Czech crown.
The landscape is quite varied. The borders are mainly formed by ranges of mountains and the centre is flattered. The highest peak in the Czech Republic is Sněžka (1602m) in The Giant mountains. There also springs the Labe. A number of rivers such as the Vltava, the Morava and the Oder flow through the country. There are also many fonds in south Bohemia. The land is heavily forested, mainly in Vysočina region. There are four national parks in the Czech Republic, the oldest is Krkonoše National Park. Lowlands are mostly in Moravia and middle Bohemia.
The Czech Republic has a temperate continental climate. Summers are warm, and winters are cold and snowy.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy. The Parliament consists of 2 chambers: The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Elections for the Chamber Deputies are held every four years. A one-third of the Senate is replaced every 2 years. The president is directly elected every 5 years. The formal head of a state is a president.
The CR is made up of three historical regions: Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia. Now the Czech Republic is divided into thirteen regions and the capital city of Prague. Every region has its own elected regional assembly and a regional governor. In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor.
Even though the Czech Republic is a small country, many famous personalities were born here. The first one is Charles IV, who was famous for being the only Czech to be Holy Roman Emperor. Miloš Forman is an Oscar-winning director. Bedřich Smetana and Antonín Dvořák were significant composters. There were born also two nobel prize winners in CR. First one is Professor Jaroslav Heyrovský, who won nobel prize for chemistry and then Jaroslav Seifert, who won NP for literature. Well-known artists are a singer Karel Gott or an actor Karel Roden. Besides artists a few successful athletes come from the Czech Republic. For example, famous ice-hockey player Jaromír Jágr, Petra Kvitova, double Wimbledon winner and Martina Sáblíková a famous speed skater.
Places to see
The Czech Republic has so many places to visit. There are many spas across the country, but the famous one is in west Bohemia- Karlovy Vary. Czechia is also well known, because of the number of castles. Tourists can visit a castle in Český Krumlov or nearby is Hluboká castle, which is probably the most famous castle in the Czech Republic next to Prague castle. Next place which worth seeing is a town Liberec, which is primally famous because of a Ještěd tower and a ZOO. The Czech Republic also has something to offer in terms of nature, for instance, Bohemian Paradise, which is full of beautiful rocks and views. Even South Moravia has much to offer – the countless tons of wine cellars as well as beautiful countryside.
Important historical events
The country began to form in the 9th century. The Czech lands became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in the 10th century. Kings Charles IV was crowned holy Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. His rule is known as ‘’the Golden age’’ of Czech history. He established Charles University, the first university in central Europe. The religious leader Jan Hus was executed in 1415. The Hussite wars followed. Then the reign of the Habsburgs came. Rudolf’s II. rule is associated with Prague being a place of magic and mysticism. An independent Czechoslovakia was formed after the first world war on October 28, 1918. Masaryk was the first president. In 1938 the Munich Agreement between Germany, Italy, France and GB decided to give The Sudetenland to Germany. In 1948 the Communist party took power. In1989 the Velvet revolution saw the end of communism. Václav Havel became the first president of newly democratic Czechoslovakia. In 1993 Czechoslovakia separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In 2004 the CR became a full member of the European Union.