Otázka: The Czech Republic
- The Czech Republic shares its borders with Poland in the North, Germany in the West, Austria in the South and Slovakia in the East.
- Minorities are Slovaks, Poles, Germans, Russians, Romanies and members of other nations.
- The highest mountain is Sněžka in the giant mountains near the polish border.
- The longest river is the Vltava, which springs in the Šumava and flows into the Labe river.
- Other important rivers are Odra and Morava.
- Agriculture production are sugar beet, maze, sunflower, fruits, vegetable, oats.
- Chemical industry in Pardubice
- Textile, clothes and leather industry in Prague and Zlín
- Breweries in Plzeň and České Budějovice
There are three historical parts of the country:
- Bohemia in the West Moravia in the East and the smallest Silesia the northern part of Moravia. There are differences between these regions in dialects and folk traditions. Politically the Czech Republic is divided into 14 districts.
The Czech Republic which is situated in central Europe is an inland state with moderate climate. Here we can find valleys, lowlands, high grounds (The Bohemian – Moravian Highland, The Central Bohemian Highland), mountain ranges but moorlands and swamps as well.
It is a country with nice nature and rich culture and history. The combination of natural beauties and numerous wonderful buildings coming from the past centuries with cultural heritage and many silent witnesses of splendid but sometimes also tragic history makes the Czech Republic a popular destination for tourists.
Guest coming from the West are keen to see the famous West – Bohemian Triangle of spa towns in particular and this includes Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně and Františkovy Lázně. The most famous of these Karlovy Vary, was founded in the 14th century by the Emperor Charles IV. and has remained a popular place for patients from all over the world, especially those suffering from stomach, gallbladder and liver disorders. Mariánské lázně with its numerous parks and flower beds which make it one of the most attractive Czech spa towns, is a popular venue for patients suffering from kidney disorders asthma or nervous diseases. Located in the middle of woods and parks. Františkovy Lázně is a famous spa for patients with woman and heart diseases.
The South of Bohemia belongs to the most beautiful regions of Europe. The Šumava Mountains which are covered with charming woods and swamps.
The peaceful, sunny landscape of South Bohemia is full of lakes for fresh breeding, Rožmberk being the largest and most famous. Tábor a town that became the center of the Hussite Wars of the 14th century. České Budějovice and its famous beer Budweiser, Písek with its stone bridge with 7 arches, is the second oldest bridge in Central Europe.
The Krkonoše Mountains are located in the north of the country and there is the highest mountain Sněžka. Other important mountains are Orlické Mountains and Jizerské Mountains and Beskydy Mountains.
South Moravia has a beautiful place called the Moravien Karst.
A centre of South Moravia is Brno, the second largest city, the largest city is Prague
In North Moravia, there is a fruitful agriculture region called Haná with a beautiful university town called Olomouc.
Charles IV. was one of the most popular Czech Kings. He made Prague become the royal seat. Charles IV. built the famous Charles Bridge and Karlštejn Castle. The first Czech university was founded by him.
- 9th century: The Great Moravian Empire
- 1212: the Přemysl Dynasty gained the hereditary title of kings
- 1526: The Habsburg Dynasty gained the throne
- 1918: Czechoslovakia was established.
- 1945: May Uprising in Prague, WWII. ended.
- 1948: The Communist party came to power
- 1989: The Velvet revolution and the Civic Forum was founded
- 1993: Czechoslovakia split into the Czech and Slovak Republics
- 2003: The country joined the EU
THE CZECH SYSTEM OF GOVERNEMNT:
- The Czech Republic is parliamentary democratic state. The power is divided into 3 branches the legislative represented by the parliament, the executive represented mainly by the president and the government and the judicial, represented by courts at various levels.
- The parliament consists of 2 chambers – The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
- The 200 deputies and to 81 senators have the exclusive duty of making laws.
- The parliament is a law – making body.
- The president is elected every 4 years, the president represents the state abroad and to concludes foreign treaties.
- The government is composed of the Premier, the vice – premieres and the ministers.
- The judicial power is divided into a system of courts, starting with the constitutional court and the Supreme Court and going down to the courts at all levels of regional government.
The Czech Republic has 12 sites on the UNESCO cultural heritage list:
- Historic Centre of Český Krumlov: This popular tourist attraction boasts a castle and chateau complex and a well – preserved historical centre.
- Historic Centre of Prague: The top Czech destination, leads the list with monuments such as Prague castle and Charles Bridge and St. Vitus Cathedral.
- Historic Centre of Telč: The town´s square offers a unique combination of Renaissance and Baroque houses.
- Kutná hora historical town centre with the Church of St. Barbara: A medieval mining town famous for its historical centre and the Church of St. Barbara.
- Lednice – Valtice Cultural Landscape: The impressive combination of Baroque and Neo – Gothic styles stands in the largest park in the Czech Republic
- Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc: One of the tallest Baroque memorial columns in the Czech Republic.
- Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž: Kroměříž´s palace is considered a fine example of Baroque architecture.
- Other Unesco are: Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora, Holašovice Historical village reservations, Litomyšl Castle, Tugendhat Villa in Brno and Basilica in Třebíč.
- Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic, the seat of the President, government and parliament and the political, cultural and economic centre of the country. It spreads out on both banks of the river Vltava in the centre of Bohemia. The oldest parts are The Old town, The Lesser town, The New town, Josefov, Hradčany and Vyšehrad.
- The Prague Castle, the seat of the President is the dominant of the city. From the square outside the Castle tourist can admire the city below with the roofs of ancient Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque houses and palaces and hundreds of church spires for which Prague is renowned.
- The most impressive building at the Castle is St. Vitus Cathedral. The Gothic cathedral was founded by Charles IV.
- Along Neruda Street we can go from the Castle to the Lesser town below. The Lesser town is a poetic quarter with picturesque crooked streets, stylish taverns, ancient houses and palaces and romantic gardens. The jewel of Baroque architecture is St. Nicholas Church in the Lesser Town Square. From the square we can easily get to Charles Bridge over the river Vltava.
- Along Charles Street we can get to the Old Town Square, the centre of the Old Town. It is surrounded by beautifully decorated houses with coloured facades and gables of all styles. A monumental medieval tower – like building of the house At the Stone Bell and the Rococo Kinský Palace. The best-known building in the square is the Old Town Hall. The dominant of the Square is Týn church. Not far from the Square is the Bethlem Chapel.
- From the Old Town Square lead 2 well known streets. There are Paris Street and Celetná Street.
THE EUROPEAN UNION:
- The European Union is an organisation of European states that have given special powers to the European institutions and have agreed on common policies.
- The European Parliament has legislative and monitoring powers, elected by members states.
- The Council of the European Union represents the government of the member states.
- The European Commission is the dynamic organ with executive powers.
- The European Court of Justice coordinates application of the laws in all member states.
- The Court of Auditors controls investments and monitors correct and lawful application of the EU budget.
- The European Economic and Social Committee voices the opinions of organized society on economic and social issues.
- The Committee of Regions voices the opinions of regional and local organs.
- The European Central Bank is responsible for currency issues and the euro.
- The European Ombudsman deals with complaints by people about EU institutions or organs
- The European Investment Bank helps meeting EU objectives by funding investments projects.
- The original six members states included: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands.
- Something about European flag. There is a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background on the European flag. The number 12 is symbolic and its express perfection and unity. The anthem of sports the European Union is Ode to joy by Beethoven.